- 作者列表："Sekar S","Panchal SK","Ghattamaneni NK","Brown L","Crawford R","Xiao Y","Prasadam I
:Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative condition of joints, causing pain and swelling, and can be caused or worsened by trauma and obesity. The objectives of this study were to determine whether pain behaviour and progression of OA were increased in rats with trauma-induced OA fed dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA). Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch diet (C) or high-carbohydrate high-fat diet (H) with either 20% beef tallow or SFA (lauric (HLA), myristic (HMA), palmitic (HPA) or stearic (HSA) acids) for 16 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after excision of the medial meniscus of right knee joint to initiate OA when pain behaviour, glial activity, progression of knee OA, inflammatory mediators and signs of metabolic syndrome were assessed. Rats fed beef tallow, palmitic or stearic acids showed increased pain symptoms characterised by decreased hind paw/limb withdrawal thresholds and grip strengths and increased spinal astrogliosis and microgliosis compared to rats fed lauric or myristic acids. However, the severity of OA joint damage was unchanged by these dietary manipulations. We conclude that pain symptoms of trauma-induced OA in rats worsen with increased dietary beef tallow or palmitic or stearic acids, but improve with lauric or myristic acids, despite unchanged OA cartilage damage.
: 骨关节炎 (Osteoarthritis，OA) 是一种关节退行性病变，引起疼痛和肿胀，可由创伤和肥胖引起或加重。本研究的目的是确定饮食饱和脂肪酸 (SFA) 喂养的创伤诱导 OA 大鼠的疼痛行为和 OA 进展是否增加。雄性 Wistar 大鼠用 20% 牛脂或 SFA (月桂酸 (HLA)) 饲喂玉米淀粉饮食 (C) 或高碳水化合物高脂饮食 (H), 肉豆蔻酸 (HMA) 、棕榈酸 (HPA) 或硬脂酸 (HSA)术前 16 周，术后 8 周切除右膝关节内侧半月板启动 OA 时疼痛行为、神经胶质活性、膝关节 OA 进展、炎症介质和代谢综合征的体征进行了评估。与饲喂月桂酸或肉豆蔻酸的大鼠相比，饲喂牛脂、棕榈酸或硬脂酸的大鼠表现出增加的疼痛症状，其特征为后爪/肢体退缩阈值和握力降低，脊髓星形胶质细胞增生和小胶质细胞增生增加。然而，通过这些饮食操作，OA 关节损伤的严重程度不变。我们得出结论，大鼠创伤诱导的 OA 的疼痛症状随着饮食中牛脂或棕榈酸或硬脂酸的增加而恶化，但随着月桂酸或肉豆蔻酸的改善，尽管 OA 软骨损伤不变。
METHODS:Maintaining adequate daily protein intake is important to maintain muscle mass throughout the lifespan. In this regard, the overnight period has been identified as a window of opportunity to increase protein intake in the elderly. However, it is unknown whether pre-sleep protein intake affects next-morning appetite and, consequently, protein intake. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a pre-sleep protein drink on next-morning appetite, energy intake and metabolism. Twelve older individuals (eight males, four females; age: 71.3 ± 4.2 years) took part in a single-blind randomised cross-over study. After a standardised dinner, participants consumed either a 40-g protein drink, isocaloric maltodextrin drink, or placebo water control before bedtime. Next-morning appetite, energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory exchange rate (RER), and plasma acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose, and insulin concentrations were assessed. No between-group differences were observed for appetite and energy intake at breakfast. Furthermore, RMR, RER, and assessed blood markers were not significantly different between any of the treatment groups. Pre-sleep protein intake does not affect next-morning appetite and energy intake and is therefore a viable strategy to increase daily protein intake in an older population.
METHODS:Leptin (LEP) regulates glucose metabolism and energy storage in the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with the upregulation of serum LEP. LEP promoter methylation is associated with obesity. So far, few studies have explored the association of BMI and OA with LEP methylation. We assessed the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and OA on LEP promoter methylation. Data of 1114 participants comprising 583 men and 558 women, aged 30−70 years were retrieved from the Taiwan Biobank Database (2008−2015). Osteoarthritis was self-reported and cases were those who reported having ever been clinically diagnosed with osteoarthritis. BMI was categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity. The mean LEP promoter methylation level in individuals with osteoarthritis was 0.5509 ± 0.00437 and 0.5375 ± 0.00101 in those without osteoarthritis. The interaction between osteoarthritis and BMI on LEP promoter methylation was significant (p-value = 0.0180). With normal BMI as the reference, the mean LEP promoter methylation level was significantly higher in obese osteoarthritic individuals (β = 0.03696, p-value = 0.0187). However, there was no significant association between BMI and LEP promoter methylation in individuals without osteoarthritis, regardless of BMI. In conclusion, only obesity was significantly associated with LEP promoter methylation (higher levels) specifically in osteoarthritic patients.
METHODS:Background For the same BMI, South Asians have a higher body fat percentage, a higher liver fat content and a more adverse metabolic profile than whites. South Asians may have a lower fat oxidation than whites, which could result in an unfavorable metabolic profile when exposed to increased high-fat foods consumption and decreased physical activity as in current modern lifestyle. Objective To determine substrate partitioning, liver fat accumulation and metabolic profile in South Asian and white men in response to overfeeding with high-fat diet under sedentary conditions in a respiration chamber. Design Ten South Asian men (BMI, 18–29 kg/m^2) and 10 white men (BMI, 22–33 kg/m^2), matched for body fat percentage, aged 20–40 year were included. A weight maintenance diet (30% fat, 55% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) was given for 3 days. Thereafter, a baseline measurement of liver fat content (1H-MRS) and blood parameters was performed. Subsequently, subjects were overfed (150% energy requirement) with a high-fat diet (60% fat, 25% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) over 3 consecutive days while staying in a respiration chamber mimicking a sedentary lifestyle. Energy expenditure and substrate use were measured for 3 × 24-h. Liver fat and blood parameters were measured again after the subjects left the chamber. Results The 24-h fat oxidation as a percentage of total energy expenditure did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.30). Overfeeding increased liver fat content ( P = 0.02), but the increase did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.64). In South Asians, overfeeding tended to increase LDL-cholesterol ( P = 0.08), tended to decrease glucose clearance ( P = 0.06) and tended to elevate insulin response ( P = 0.07) slightly more than whites. Conclusions Despite a similar substrate partitioning and similar accretion of liver fat, overfeeding with high-fat under sedentary conditions tended to have more adverse effects on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in South Asians.