Exposure to the UV Filter Octyl Methoxy Cinnamate in the Postnatal Period Induces Thyroid Dysregulation and Perturbs the Immune System of Mice.
出生后暴露于 UV 过滤器甲氧基肉桂酸辛酯可诱导甲状腺功能失调，扰乱小鼠的免疫系统。
- 作者列表："Ferraris FK","Garcia EB","Chaves ADS","de Brito TM","Doro LH","Félix da Silva NM","Alves AS","Pádua TA","Henriques MDGMO","Cardoso Machado TS","Amendoeira FC
:Evidence demonstrates the bidirectional communication and regulation between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Thyroid hormones play key roles in nervous system development and can exert influence on various immune cells contributing to pathophysiological conditions. Octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) is one of the most commonly used UV filters, and in vitro and in vivo studies have found thyroid disrupting effects. The present study assessed whether OMC administration in mice dams during the lactational period can cause thyroid disruption and generate immunologic alterations in the offspring. Indirect exposure to the OMC (1,000 mg/kg) in the lactational period affected neurodevelopment parameters, such as delayed eye-opening and weight gain in mice of both sexes, and these alterations are corroborated by the decrease in the T4 levels present in the pups' blood. No significant changes were observed in the thymus of these pups, but the number of lymphocytes increased in the spleen of the animals exposed to OMC, similar to the animals treated with propyl-thiouracil (PTU), a well-known thyroid disruptor. OMC modulated the percentage of leukocyte populations in peripheral blood, and the number of circulating polymorphonuclear cells increased two-fold. In vitro, OMC exhibited an inhibitory effect on splenocyte proliferation and IL-2 production induced by anti-CD3 antibody; however, this effect was reversed with the addition of T4 in the cell culture. In summary, the results of the present study demonstrate the influence of OMC on thyroid dysregulation and its impact on the modulation of the immune system in mice pups.
: 证据表明神经内分泌和免疫系统之间存在双向交流和调节。甲状腺激素在神经系统发育中起关键作用，并可影响各种免疫细胞，导致病理生理状况。甲氧基肉桂酸辛酯 (OMC) 是最常用的紫外线过滤器之一，体外和体内研究发现甲状腺干扰作用。本研究评估了在哺乳期小鼠母羊中给予 OMC 是否会引起甲状腺破坏并在后代中产生免疫改变。哺乳期间接暴露于 OMC (1,000 mg/kg) 影响神经发育参数，如延迟睁眼和两性小鼠体重增加, 这些改变被幼崽血液中存在的 T4 水平的降低所证实。这些幼鼠的胸腺没有观察到显著变化，但暴露于 OMC 的动物脾脏中淋巴细胞数量增加, 类似于用丙基硫氧嘧啶 (PTU) 治疗的动物，PTU 是一种众所周知的甲状腺干扰物。OMC 调节外周血白细胞群的百分比，循环多形核细胞数量增加 2 倍。在体外，OMC 对 IL-2 抗体诱导的脾细胞增殖和 anti-CD3 产生表现出抑制作用; 然而，在细胞培养中加入 T4 可逆转这种作用。总之，本研究的结果证明了 OMC 对甲状腺失调的影响及其对小鼠幼鼠免疫系统调节的影响。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To assess the prevalence of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) in primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) and whether it differs between mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS:Electronic databases were searched for studies assessing HT prevalence in PTL, based on antithyroid antibodies, clinical history, or pathology. Pooled prevalence of HT and its association with histotype (MALT or DLBCL) were calculated. RESULTS:Thirty-eight studies with 1,346 PTLs were included. Pooled prevalence results were 78.9% (any HT evidence), 65.3% (antithyroid antibodies), 41.7% (clinical history), and 64% (pathology). HT prevalence was significantly higher in MALT lymphoma than in DLBCL (P = .007) and in mixed DLBCL/MALT than in pure DLBCL (P = .002). CONCLUSIONS:Overall, 78.9% of patients with PTL have any HT evidence, but only half of these had been clinically followed. The difference in HT prevalence suggests that a subset of DLBCL may not derive from MALT lymphoma.
METHODS:Background Whether chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) influences the risk of development and the progression of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) remains uncertain. We investigated the effects of CLT on the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of PTC. Methods Two thousand nine hundred twenty-eight consecutive patients with PTC treated between 2009 and 2017 were divided into two groups: one with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and one without; 1174 (40%) of the patients had coincident CLT. Results In univariate analysis, CLT correlated positively with small tumor size, frequent extrathyroidal extension, multifocal diseases, and p53 but negatively with central lymph node (LN) metastasis and BRAF mutation. In multivariate analysis, CLT was associated with extrathyroidal extension and multifocal disease; however, it was not a prognostic factor for recurrence even though it was associated with two aggressive factors. Compared with patients with PTC alone, there were more retrieved central LNs in the PTC + CLT group, and these patients also underwent more invasive diagnostic tests such as fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen biopsy of LN. Conclusions The CLT patients with PTC had better behavior features and prognoses than did those with PTC alone despite frequent multifocality and extrathyroidal extension. However, precaution may be necessary to avoid performing invasive diagnostic procedures for lateral LN metastasis and to manage the patients appropriately.
METHODS::PTPN2 is one of the members of the protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) family. To explore the promotive effect of upregulated PTPN2 induced by inflammatory response or oxidative stress on the progression of thyroid cancer. PTPN2 level in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines was detected. Kaplan-Meier method was applied for evaluating the prognostic value of PTPN2 in thyroid cancer patients. After stimulation of inflammatory response (treatment of IFN-γ and TNF-α), or oxidative stress (treatment of H2O2), protein level of PTPN2 in K1 cells was measured by Western blot. Regulatory effects of PTPN2 on EdU-positive staining and Ki-67 positive cell ratio in K1 cells either with H2O2 stimulation or not were determined. PTPN2 was upregulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. Its level was higher in metastatic thyroid cancer patients than those of non-metastatic ones. High level of PTPN2 predicted worse prognosis of thyroid cancer. Treatment of either IFN-γ or TNF-α upregulated protein level of PTPN2 in K1 cells. Meanwhile, H2O2 stimulation upregulated PTPN2, which was reversed by NAC administration. With the stimulation of increased doses of H2O2, EdU-positive staining and Ki-67 positive cell ratio were dose-dependently elevated. Silence of PTPN2 attenuated proliferative ability and Ki-67 expression in K1 cells either with H2O2 stimulation or not. Inflammatory response or oxidative stress induces upregulation of PTPN2, thus promoting the progression of thyroid cancer.