Multiple Pathways Involved in Palmitic Acid-Induced Toxicity: A System Biology Approach.
- 作者列表："Osorio D","Pinzón A","Martín-Jiménez C","Barreto GE","González J
:Inflammation is a complex biological response to injuries, metabolic disorders or infections. In the brain, astrocytes play an important role in the inflammatory processes during neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have shown that the increase of free saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid produces a metabolic inflammatory response in astrocytes generally associated with damaging mechanisms such as oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and autophagic defects. In this aspect, the synthetic neurosteroid tibolone has shown to exert protective functions against inflammation in neuronal experimental models without the tumorigenic effects exerted by sexual hormones such as estradiol and progesterone. However, there is little information regarding the specific mechanisms of tibolone in astrocytes during inflammatory insults. In the present study, we performed a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of astrocytes that was used to study astrocytic response during an inflammatory insult by palmitate through Flux Balance Analysis methods and data mining. In this aspect, we assessed the metabolic fluxes of human astrocytes under three different scenarios: healthy (normal conditions), induced inflammation by palmitate, and tibolone treatment under palmitate inflammation. Our results suggest that tibolone reduces the L-glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity in astrocytes through the modulation of several metabolic pathways involved in glutamate uptake. We also identified a set of reactions associated with the protective effects of tibolone, including the upregulation of taurine metabolism, gluconeogenesis, cPPAR and the modulation of calcium signaling pathways. In conclusion, the different scenarios studied in our model allowed us to identify several metabolic fluxes perturbed under an inflammatory response and the protective mechanisms exerted by tibolone.
: 炎症是对损伤、代谢紊乱或感染的复杂生物学反应。在大脑中，星形胶质细胞在神经退行性疾病的炎症过程中起重要作用。最近的研究表明，棕榈酸等游离饱和脂肪酸的增加在星形胶质细胞中产生一种代谢性炎症反应，一般与氧化应激、内质网应激、和自噬缺陷。在这方面，合成的神经类固醇替勃龙在神经元实验模型中表现出对炎症的保护功能，而没有雌二醇和孕酮等性激素的致瘤作用。然而，关于炎症损伤时替勃龙在星形胶质细胞中的具体机制的信息很少。在本研究中，我们通过通量平衡分析方法和数据挖掘，对星形胶质细胞进行了基因组规模的代谢重建，用于研究棕榈酸盐炎症损伤过程中的星形胶质细胞反应。在这方面，我们评估了人星形胶质细胞在三种不同情况下的代谢通量: 健康 (正常情况) 、棕榈酸诱导的炎症和棕榈酸炎症下的替勃龙治疗。我们的结果表明，替勃龙通过调节参与谷氨酸摄取的几种代谢途径，降低星形胶质细胞中 L-谷氨酸介导的神经毒性。我们还确定了一组与替勃龙的保护作用相关的反应，包括牛磺酸代谢的上调、糖异生、 cPPAR 和钙信号通路的调节。总之，我们模型中研究的不同情景使我们能够识别炎症反应下扰动的几种代谢通量和替勃龙发挥的保护机制。
METHODS:Purpose Given the paucity of reliable predictors of tumor recurrence, progression, or response to somatostatin receptor ligand (SRL) therapy in acromegaly, we attempted to determine whether preoperative MR image texture was predictive of these clinical outcomes. We also determined whether image texture could differentiate somatotroph adenomas from non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Methods We performed a retrospective study of patients with acromegaly due to a macroadenoma who underwent transsphenoidal surgery at our institution between 2007 and 2015. Clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records. MRI texture analysis was performed on preoperative non-enhanced T1-weighted images using ImageJ (NIH). Logistic and Cox models were used to determine if image texture parameters predicted outcomes. Results Eighty-nine patients had texture parameters measured, which were compared to that of NFPAs, while 64 of these patients had follow-up and were included in the remainder of analyses. Minimum pixel intensity, skewness, and kurtosis were significantly different in somatotroph adenomas versus NFPAs (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.7771, for kurtosis). Furthermore, those with a maximum pixel intensity above the median had an increased odds of IGF-I normalization on SRL therapy (OR 5.96, 95% CI 1.33–26.66), which persisted after adjusting for several potential predictors of response. Image texture did not predict tumor recurrence or progression. Conclusion Our data suggest that MRI texture analysis can distinguish NFPAs from somatotroph macroadenomas with good diagnostic accuracy and can predict normalization of IGF-I with SRL therapy.
METHODS::Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma (GHPA), a benign endocrine tumor located in the base of the skull, results in acromegaly. In addition to the mass effect of the tumor itself in the sellar region, GHPA can lead to the overgrowth of almost every organ. Previous findings indicated that the processes underlying acromegaly were partly attributable to hyperactivity of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis. However, the mechanisms driving this syndrome remains largely unknown. Additionally, the roles of GHPA-derived exosomes, which contain functional microRNAs and proteins that manipulate target cell proliferation and differentiation in distal extremities, are also unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that GHPA exosomes promote bone formation in vitro and trabecula number in vivo. The mechanism of increased trabecula formation may be attributable to GHPA exosome-induced osteoblast proliferation via increased cell viability and DNA replication. We further discovered that exosomal hsa-miR-21-5p plays a distinct role from the GH/IGF-1 axis in these processes. Accordingly, the results of this study provide a novel mechanism whereby GHPA influences distal extremities and a new perspective for treating GHPA.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a circulating hormone with pleiotropic metabolic effects, which is inactivated by fibroblast activation protein (FAP). Data regarding interaction between FGF21, FAP, and growth hormone (GH) are limited, but it is noteworthy that collagens are also FAP substrates, since GH potently stimulates collagen turnover. AIM:To measure circulating FGF21 components, including FAP, in patients with acromegaly before and after disease control. METHODS:Eighteen patients with active acromegaly were studied at the time of diagnosis and ≥ 6 months after disease control by either surgery or medical treatment. Serum levels of total and active FGF21, β-klotho, FAP, and collagen turnover markers were measured by immunoassays. Expression of putative FGF21-dependent genes were measured in adipose tissue by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, body composition assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, and insulin sensitivity estimated with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULTS:Total FGF21, active FGF21 and β-klotho remained unchanged. Insulin sensitivity and body fat mass increased after disease control but neither correlated with active FGF21. Expression of FGF21-dependent genes did not change after treatment. FAP levels (µg/L) were markedly reduced after treatment [105.6 ± 29.4 vs 62.2 ± 32.4, P < 0.000]. Collagen turnover markers also declined significantly after treatment and ΔFAP correlated positively with ΔProcollagen Type I (P < 0.000) and Type III (P < 0.000). CONCLUSION:1) Circulating FGF21 and β-klotho do not change in response to acromegaly treatment, 2) FAP concentrations in serum decrease after disease control and correlate positively with collagen turnover markers, and 3) FAP is a hitherto unrecognized GH target linked to collagen turnover. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION:NCT00647179.