Long-Term Use of Mixed-Oil Lipid Emulsion in Soybean Oil-Intolerant Home Parenteral Nutrition Patients.
- 作者列表："Mundi MS","Kuchkuntla AR","Salonen BR","Bonnes S","Hurt RT
BACKGROUND:Although home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is lifesaving for patients with chronic intestinal failure (IF), long-term use can be associated with complications such as infections, metabolic abnormalities, and IF-associated liver disease (IFALD). The key to treatment of many of these complications is prevention. Guidelines recommend avoidance of overfeeding, use of oral/enteral nutrition if possible, cyclic PN, and maintaining dose of soybean oil (SO) intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) <1 g/kg/day as preventive strategies for IFALD. Additionally, with development of IFALD, ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio should be decreased in ILE. The newly available mixed-oil (MO) ILE offers such an opportunity; however, there is a paucity of long-term data available. METHODS:The current study reports our long-term experience with MO ILE use in HPN patients. RESULTS:Seventeen patients (8 female and 9 male) with an average age of 47 ± 12 years and median HPN duration of 4.6 years (1.1-32.1 years) have utilized MO ILE for >12 months after being transitioned from SO ILE because of intolerance. Use of MO ILE allowed an increase in ILE energy from 8% ± 8% to 22% ± 8% while reducing dextrose energy from 66% ± 8% to 54% ± 5%, maintaining stability in alkaline phosphatase and triglyceride levels, and achieving improvement in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, and α-tocopherol levels. CONCLUSION:In this HPN cohort with SO ILE intolerance, MO ILE was well tolerated and allowed an improvement in macronutrient composition while improving some liver parameters over a 12-month period.
背景: 虽然家庭肠外营养 (HPN) 可以挽救慢性肠衰竭 (IF) 患者的生命，但长期使用可与感染、代谢异常、和 IF 相关性肝病 (IFALD)。治疗许多这些并发症的关键是预防。指南建议避免过量喂养，尽可能使用口服/肠内营养，循环 PN，维持大豆油 (SO) 静脉脂肪乳 (ILE) 剂量从 SO ILE 过渡后 12 个月，因为不容忍。使用 moile 可以将 ILE 能量从 8% ± 8% 增加到 22% ± 8%，同时将葡萄糖能量从 66% ± 8% 降低到 54% ± 5%，保持碱性磷酸酶和甘油三酯水平的稳定性, 并实现天冬氨酸氨基转移酶、丙氨酸氨基转移酶、总胆红素和 α-生育酚水平的改善。 结论: 在这个具有 SO ILE 不耐受的 HPN 队列中，moile 耐受性良好，并且在 12 个月期间允许改善宏量营养素组成，同时改善一些肝脏参数。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effect of esophageal stimulation on nutritional adequacy in critically ill patients at risk for enteral feeding intolerance. DESIGN:A multicenter randomized sham-controlled clinical trial. SETTING:Twelve ICUs in Canada. PATIENTS:We included mechanically ventilated ICU patients who were given moderate-to-high doses of opioids and expected to remain alive and ventilated for an additional 48 hours and who were receiving enteral nutrition or expected to start imminently. INTERVENTIONS:Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to esophageal stimulation via an esophageal stimulating catheter (E-Motion Tube; E-Motion Medical, Tel Aviv, Israel) or sham treatment. All patients were fed via these catheters using a standardized feeding protocol. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The co-primary outcomes were proportion of caloric and protein prescription received enterally over the initial 7 days following randomization. Among 159 patients randomized, the modified intention-to-treat analysis included 155 patients: 73 patients in the active treatment group and 82 in the sham treatment group. Over the 7-day study period, the percent of prescribed caloric intake (± SE) received by the enteral route was 64% ± 2 in the active group and 65% ± 2 in sham patients for calories (difference, -1; 95% CI, -8 to 6; p = 0.74). For protein, it was 57% ± 3 in the active group and 60% ± 3 in the sham group (difference, -3; 95% CI, -10 to 3; p = 0.30). Compared to the sham group, there were more serious adverse events reported in the active treatment group (13 vs 6; p = 0.053). Clinically important arrhythmias were detected by Holter monitoring in 36 out of 70 (51%) in the active group versus 22 out of 76 (29%) in the sham group (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:Esophageal stimulation via a special feeding catheter did not improve nutritional adequacy and was associated with increase risk of harm in critically ill patients.
METHODS:RATIONALE:The long-term effects of delivering approximately 100% of recommended calorie intake via the enteral route during critical illness compared to a lesser amount of calories are unknown. OBJECTIVES:Our hypotheses were that achieving approximately 100% of recommended calorie intake during critical illness would increase quality of life scores, return to work and key life activities and reduce death and disability six months later. METHODS:We conducted a multicenter, blinded, parallel group, randomized clinical trial, with 3957 mechanically ventilated critically ill adults allocated to energy-dense (1.5 kcal/ml) or routine (1.0 kcal/ml) enteral nutrition. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Participants assigned energy-dense nutrition received more calories (% recommended energy intake, mean (SD) (energy-dense: 103% (28) vs. usual: 69% (18)). Mortality at day-180 was similar (560/1895 (29.6%) vs. 539/1920 (28.1%); relative risk 1.05 (95%CI, 0.95 to 1.16)). At a median [IQR] of 185 [182, 193] days after randomization, 2492 survivors were surveyed and reported similar quality of life (EuroQol five dimensions five-level quality of life questionnaire visual analogue scale, median [IQR]: 75 [60-85]; group difference: 0 (95%CI, 0 to 0)). Similar numbers of participants returned to work with no difference in hours worked or effectiveness at work (n=818). There was no observed difference in disability (n=1208) or participation in key life activities (n=705). CONCLUSIONS:The delivery of approximately 100% compared to 70% of recommended calorie intake during critical illness does not improve quality of life, or functional outcomes, or increase the number of survivors six months later. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT02306746.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Provision of enteral nutrition with jejunal feeding in upper gastrointestinal obstruction is highly recommended. Access to jejunum can be obtained surgically, percutaneously, or endoscopically. Our institution routinely and preferentially utilizes a silicone nasojejunal tube that is inserted past the obstruction endoscopically. We use a custom dual channel tube that allows feeding at the distal tip and another channel 40 cm from the tip that enables decompression proximally. This is a report of our experience with this custom nasojejunal tube. METHODS:This is a prospective observational study of 201 patients who underwent endoscopic nasojejunal wire-guided feeding tube insertions for obstruction of either the esophagus or the stomach including both benign and malignant pathologies between January 2015 to June 2018 in Hospital Sungai Buloh and Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Malaysia. The indications for tube insertion, insertion technique, and tube-related problems were described. RESULTS:The nasojejunal tube was used to establish enteral feeding in patients with obstructing tumors of the distal esophagus in 65 patients (32.3%) and gastric outlet obstruction in 72 patients (35.8%). There were 54 patients (26.9%) who required reinsertion. The most common reason for reinsertion was unintentional dislodgement, where 32 patients (15.9%) followed by tube blockage 20 patients (10.0%). Using our method of advancement under direct vision, we had only 2 cases of malposition due to severely deformed anatomy. We had no incidence of aspiration in this group of patients and overall, the patients tolerated the tube well. CONCLUSIONS:The novel nasojejunal feeding tube with gastric decompression function is a safe and effective method of delivery of enteral nutrition in patients with upper gastrointestinal obstruction. These tubes if inserted properly are well tolerated with almost no risk of malposition and are tolerated well even for prolonged periods of time until definitive surgery could be performed.