Body Composition Using Air Displacement Plethysmography in Children With Intestinal Failure Receiving Long-Term Home Parenteral Nutrition.
- 作者列表："Neelis E","Kouwenhoven S","Olieman J","Tabbers M","Jonkers C","Wells J","Fewtrell M","Wijnen R","Rings E","de Koning B","Hulst J
BACKGROUND:Children with intestinal failure (IF) are at risk of growth failure, but little information about body composition is available. Our aim was to assess body composition using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and relate it to clinical and growth parameters. METHODS:In this prospective descriptive observational 2-center cohort study, children aged 2-18 years receiving home parenteral nutrition (PN) for ≥6 months underwent ADP measurement. Fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) standard deviation scores (SDSs) were calculated to normalize for small body size. RESULTS:Twenty-one out of 22 children, median age 7.4 years, underwent successful ADP measurement after a median PN duration of 5.5 years. They were significantly lighter (median weight for age SDS -0.71, P = 0.004) and shorter (median height for age SDS -1.55, P < 0.001) than the normal population mean; 52% were growing below target height range. They had low FFMI (median SDS -1.53, P < 0.001) and high FMI (median SDS 0.80, P = 0.002). Weight for height and body mass index (BMI) were significantly associated with FFMI and BMI with FMI, but children with the same weight and height showed different body composition. In 13 patients with 1-year follow-up, growth and body composition did not change significantly. CONCLUSION:Children with IF receiving long-term PN show lower FFM and higher FM than healthy children. Additionally, children with similar routine growth parameters showed different body composition. Further studies should evaluate the effect of a patient-tailored approach including physical activity and nutrition advice based on body composition.
背景: 患有肠衰竭 (IF) 的儿童有生长失败的风险，但是关于身体成分的信息很少。我们的目的是使用空气置换体积描记术 (ADP) 评估身体成分，并将其与临床和生长参数相关联。 方法: 在这项前瞻性描述性观察性 2 中心队列研究中，接受 ≥ 6 个月家庭肠外营养 (PN) 的 2-18 岁儿童接受 ADP 测量。计算脂肪质量指数 (FMI) 和无脂肪质量指数 (FFMI) 标准差评分 (SDSs)，对小体型进行标准化。 结果: 22 例儿童中有 21 例 (中位年龄 7.4 岁) 在 PN 持续时间中位数为 5.5 年后成功接受了 ADP 测量。与正常人群平均相比，他们显著更轻 (年龄 SDS 的中位体重-0.71，P = 0.004) 和更短 (年龄 SDS 的中位身高-1.55，P
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effect of esophageal stimulation on nutritional adequacy in critically ill patients at risk for enteral feeding intolerance. DESIGN:A multicenter randomized sham-controlled clinical trial. SETTING:Twelve ICUs in Canada. PATIENTS:We included mechanically ventilated ICU patients who were given moderate-to-high doses of opioids and expected to remain alive and ventilated for an additional 48 hours and who were receiving enteral nutrition or expected to start imminently. INTERVENTIONS:Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to esophageal stimulation via an esophageal stimulating catheter (E-Motion Tube; E-Motion Medical, Tel Aviv, Israel) or sham treatment. All patients were fed via these catheters using a standardized feeding protocol. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The co-primary outcomes were proportion of caloric and protein prescription received enterally over the initial 7 days following randomization. Among 159 patients randomized, the modified intention-to-treat analysis included 155 patients: 73 patients in the active treatment group and 82 in the sham treatment group. Over the 7-day study period, the percent of prescribed caloric intake (± SE) received by the enteral route was 64% ± 2 in the active group and 65% ± 2 in sham patients for calories (difference, -1; 95% CI, -8 to 6; p = 0.74). For protein, it was 57% ± 3 in the active group and 60% ± 3 in the sham group (difference, -3; 95% CI, -10 to 3; p = 0.30). Compared to the sham group, there were more serious adverse events reported in the active treatment group (13 vs 6; p = 0.053). Clinically important arrhythmias were detected by Holter monitoring in 36 out of 70 (51%) in the active group versus 22 out of 76 (29%) in the sham group (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:Esophageal stimulation via a special feeding catheter did not improve nutritional adequacy and was associated with increase risk of harm in critically ill patients.
METHODS:RATIONALE:The long-term effects of delivering approximately 100% of recommended calorie intake via the enteral route during critical illness compared to a lesser amount of calories are unknown. OBJECTIVES:Our hypotheses were that achieving approximately 100% of recommended calorie intake during critical illness would increase quality of life scores, return to work and key life activities and reduce death and disability six months later. METHODS:We conducted a multicenter, blinded, parallel group, randomized clinical trial, with 3957 mechanically ventilated critically ill adults allocated to energy-dense (1.5 kcal/ml) or routine (1.0 kcal/ml) enteral nutrition. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Participants assigned energy-dense nutrition received more calories (% recommended energy intake, mean (SD) (energy-dense: 103% (28) vs. usual: 69% (18)). Mortality at day-180 was similar (560/1895 (29.6%) vs. 539/1920 (28.1%); relative risk 1.05 (95%CI, 0.95 to 1.16)). At a median [IQR] of 185 [182, 193] days after randomization, 2492 survivors were surveyed and reported similar quality of life (EuroQol five dimensions five-level quality of life questionnaire visual analogue scale, median [IQR]: 75 [60-85]; group difference: 0 (95%CI, 0 to 0)). Similar numbers of participants returned to work with no difference in hours worked or effectiveness at work (n=818). There was no observed difference in disability (n=1208) or participation in key life activities (n=705). CONCLUSIONS:The delivery of approximately 100% compared to 70% of recommended calorie intake during critical illness does not improve quality of life, or functional outcomes, or increase the number of survivors six months later. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT02306746.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Provision of enteral nutrition with jejunal feeding in upper gastrointestinal obstruction is highly recommended. Access to jejunum can be obtained surgically, percutaneously, or endoscopically. Our institution routinely and preferentially utilizes a silicone nasojejunal tube that is inserted past the obstruction endoscopically. We use a custom dual channel tube that allows feeding at the distal tip and another channel 40 cm from the tip that enables decompression proximally. This is a report of our experience with this custom nasojejunal tube. METHODS:This is a prospective observational study of 201 patients who underwent endoscopic nasojejunal wire-guided feeding tube insertions for obstruction of either the esophagus or the stomach including both benign and malignant pathologies between January 2015 to June 2018 in Hospital Sungai Buloh and Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Malaysia. The indications for tube insertion, insertion technique, and tube-related problems were described. RESULTS:The nasojejunal tube was used to establish enteral feeding in patients with obstructing tumors of the distal esophagus in 65 patients (32.3%) and gastric outlet obstruction in 72 patients (35.8%). There were 54 patients (26.9%) who required reinsertion. The most common reason for reinsertion was unintentional dislodgement, where 32 patients (15.9%) followed by tube blockage 20 patients (10.0%). Using our method of advancement under direct vision, we had only 2 cases of malposition due to severely deformed anatomy. We had no incidence of aspiration in this group of patients and overall, the patients tolerated the tube well. CONCLUSIONS:The novel nasojejunal feeding tube with gastric decompression function is a safe and effective method of delivery of enteral nutrition in patients with upper gastrointestinal obstruction. These tubes if inserted properly are well tolerated with almost no risk of malposition and are tolerated well even for prolonged periods of time until definitive surgery could be performed.