Malnutrition Diagnosis in Critically Ill Patients Using 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Standardized Diagnostic Characteristics Is Associated With Longer Hospital and Intensive Care Unit Length
使用 2012 营养与营养学学会/美国肠外和肠内营养学会标准化诊断特征对危重患者的营养不良诊断与更长的住院时间和重症监护病房长度相关
- 作者列表："Hiura G","Lebwohl B","Seres DS
BACKGROUND:Standardized diagnostic criteria for malnutrition were developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (AND/ASPEN) in 2012. The criteria as a whole has had little validation, and the effect of underlying condition on the impact of malnutrition has not been well studied. We measured the association between severe malnutrition and hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, and mortality among critically ill inpatients. METHODS:We analyzed hospital records from 5606 patients whose admission included an ICU stay. Associations between severe malnutrition and LOS and mortality were examined by multivariable linear and logistic regression. RESULTS:Thirteen percent were diagnosed with severe malnutrition. These had significantly longer hospital LOS (18 [interquartile range 10-35] days vs 8 [5-14] days), total ICU LOS (7 [3-15] days vs 3 [1-6] days) and in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.33-3.31), compared with those without severe malnutrition. After adjusting for demographics, we found significant interactions between severe malnutrition and ICU location. Patients with malnutrition in the cardiothoracic surgery ICU experienced the largest increases in hospital LOS (21.10 days, 95% CI 18.58-23.61), ICU LOS (12.14 days, 95% CI 10.41-13.87), and in-hospital mortality (OR 8.78, 95% CI 5.11-15.07). CONCLUSION:Critically ill patients diagnosed with severe malnutrition based on the AND/ASPEN diagnostic characteristics experienced longer hospital and ICU LOS and increased mortality. The magnitude of effect of malnutrition was modified by ICU location, underscoring the need to identify the major comorbidities associated with malnutrition.
背景: 营养与营养学学会/美国肠外肠内营养学会 (and/ASPEN) 于 2012年制定了标准化的营养不良诊断标准。该标准作为一个整体几乎没有验证，基础条件对营养不良影响的影响尚未得到很好的研究。我们测量了重症营养不良与住院时间 (LOS) 、重症监护病房 (ICU) LOS 和危重住院患者死亡率之间的相关性。 方法: 我们分析了 5606 例入院包括 ICU 住院的患者的医院记录。通过多变量线性和 logistic 回归分析严重营养不良与 LOS 和死亡率之间的相关性。 结果: 13% 的患者被诊断为严重营养不良。这些患者的医院 LOS 明显较长 (18 [四分位距 10-35] 天 vs 8 [5-14] 天), ICU 总 LOS (7 [3-15] 天 vs 3 [1-6] 天) 和住院死亡率 (比值比 [OR] 2.78, 95% 置信区间 [CI] 2.33-3.31),与无严重营养不良者相比。调整人口统计学后，我们发现严重营养不良和 ICU 位置之间存在显著的相互作用。心胸外科 ICU 营养不良患者住院 LOS (21.10 天，95% CI 18.58-23.61) 、 ICU LOS (12.14 天，95% CI 10.41-13.87) 增加最大, 和住院死亡率 (OR 8.78，95% CI 5.11-15.07)。 结论: 基于 AND/ASPEN 诊断特征诊断为严重营养不良的危重患者经历了更长的住院时间和 ICU LOS，死亡率增加。通过 ICU 位置修改营养不良的影响程度，强调需要确定与营养不良相关的主要合并症。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effect of esophageal stimulation on nutritional adequacy in critically ill patients at risk for enteral feeding intolerance. DESIGN:A multicenter randomized sham-controlled clinical trial. SETTING:Twelve ICUs in Canada. PATIENTS:We included mechanically ventilated ICU patients who were given moderate-to-high doses of opioids and expected to remain alive and ventilated for an additional 48 hours and who were receiving enteral nutrition or expected to start imminently. INTERVENTIONS:Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to esophageal stimulation via an esophageal stimulating catheter (E-Motion Tube; E-Motion Medical, Tel Aviv, Israel) or sham treatment. All patients were fed via these catheters using a standardized feeding protocol. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The co-primary outcomes were proportion of caloric and protein prescription received enterally over the initial 7 days following randomization. Among 159 patients randomized, the modified intention-to-treat analysis included 155 patients: 73 patients in the active treatment group and 82 in the sham treatment group. Over the 7-day study period, the percent of prescribed caloric intake (± SE) received by the enteral route was 64% ± 2 in the active group and 65% ± 2 in sham patients for calories (difference, -1; 95% CI, -8 to 6; p = 0.74). For protein, it was 57% ± 3 in the active group and 60% ± 3 in the sham group (difference, -3; 95% CI, -10 to 3; p = 0.30). Compared to the sham group, there were more serious adverse events reported in the active treatment group (13 vs 6; p = 0.053). Clinically important arrhythmias were detected by Holter monitoring in 36 out of 70 (51%) in the active group versus 22 out of 76 (29%) in the sham group (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:Esophageal stimulation via a special feeding catheter did not improve nutritional adequacy and was associated with increase risk of harm in critically ill patients.
METHODS:RATIONALE:The long-term effects of delivering approximately 100% of recommended calorie intake via the enteral route during critical illness compared to a lesser amount of calories are unknown. OBJECTIVES:Our hypotheses were that achieving approximately 100% of recommended calorie intake during critical illness would increase quality of life scores, return to work and key life activities and reduce death and disability six months later. METHODS:We conducted a multicenter, blinded, parallel group, randomized clinical trial, with 3957 mechanically ventilated critically ill adults allocated to energy-dense (1.5 kcal/ml) or routine (1.0 kcal/ml) enteral nutrition. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Participants assigned energy-dense nutrition received more calories (% recommended energy intake, mean (SD) (energy-dense: 103% (28) vs. usual: 69% (18)). Mortality at day-180 was similar (560/1895 (29.6%) vs. 539/1920 (28.1%); relative risk 1.05 (95%CI, 0.95 to 1.16)). At a median [IQR] of 185 [182, 193] days after randomization, 2492 survivors were surveyed and reported similar quality of life (EuroQol five dimensions five-level quality of life questionnaire visual analogue scale, median [IQR]: 75 [60-85]; group difference: 0 (95%CI, 0 to 0)). Similar numbers of participants returned to work with no difference in hours worked or effectiveness at work (n=818). There was no observed difference in disability (n=1208) or participation in key life activities (n=705). CONCLUSIONS:The delivery of approximately 100% compared to 70% of recommended calorie intake during critical illness does not improve quality of life, or functional outcomes, or increase the number of survivors six months later. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT02306746.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Provision of enteral nutrition with jejunal feeding in upper gastrointestinal obstruction is highly recommended. Access to jejunum can be obtained surgically, percutaneously, or endoscopically. Our institution routinely and preferentially utilizes a silicone nasojejunal tube that is inserted past the obstruction endoscopically. We use a custom dual channel tube that allows feeding at the distal tip and another channel 40 cm from the tip that enables decompression proximally. This is a report of our experience with this custom nasojejunal tube. METHODS:This is a prospective observational study of 201 patients who underwent endoscopic nasojejunal wire-guided feeding tube insertions for obstruction of either the esophagus or the stomach including both benign and malignant pathologies between January 2015 to June 2018 in Hospital Sungai Buloh and Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Malaysia. The indications for tube insertion, insertion technique, and tube-related problems were described. RESULTS:The nasojejunal tube was used to establish enteral feeding in patients with obstructing tumors of the distal esophagus in 65 patients (32.3%) and gastric outlet obstruction in 72 patients (35.8%). There were 54 patients (26.9%) who required reinsertion. The most common reason for reinsertion was unintentional dislodgement, where 32 patients (15.9%) followed by tube blockage 20 patients (10.0%). Using our method of advancement under direct vision, we had only 2 cases of malposition due to severely deformed anatomy. We had no incidence of aspiration in this group of patients and overall, the patients tolerated the tube well. CONCLUSIONS:The novel nasojejunal feeding tube with gastric decompression function is a safe and effective method of delivery of enteral nutrition in patients with upper gastrointestinal obstruction. These tubes if inserted properly are well tolerated with almost no risk of malposition and are tolerated well even for prolonged periods of time until definitive surgery could be performed.