Caffeine Optimizes HIIT Benefits on Obesity-associated Metabolic Adversity in Women.
咖啡因优化了 HIIT 对女性肥胖相关代谢逆境的益处。
- 作者列表："Alkhatib A","Hsieh MJ","Kuo CH","Hou CW
PURPOSE:We investigated whether obesity adversities of excessive body fat, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, metabolic endotoxemia, irregular androgenicity, reduced cardiorespiratory and anaerobic fitness are ameliorated by high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with or without caffeine supplementation in women with obesity. METHODS:Twenty-four women with obesity (Asian cut-off point BMI ≥ 27 kg.m, body fat=40%) were evenly randomized to caffeine (CAF) and placebo (PLA) trials for an 8-week HIIT program (10x 1-min sprints, interspersed by 1-min rest). CAF (3 mg.kg.bw) and PLA were supplemented before each training session. Body fat was assessed by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) before and after training together with assessments of glucose tolerance (OGTT), lipopolysaccharide endotoxins, testosterone, cardiorespiratory and anaerobic fitness. RESULTS:Significant interaction between HIIT and CAF was found for OGTT- glucose and insulin levels (p=0.001, p=0.049 respectively). HIIT-alone increased glucose at 90-min (p=0.049) and OGTT-insulin at 60-min (p=0.038). Conversely, HIIT with CAF decreased OGTT-glucose at 120-min (p=0.024) without affecting OGTT-insulin. HIIT-alone induced 28.3% higher OGTT-insulin (effect size d=0.59 for area-under-the-curve, AUC) and 14.5% higher OGTT-glucose (d=0.28). Conversely, HIIT with CAF decreased OGTT-glucose by 19.1% (d=0.51 for AUC) without changing OGTT-insulin. HIIT-alone effects on glycemia and insulinemia were concurrent with a 31% increase in lipopolysaccharide endotoxins (p=0.07; d=0.78, CI: 5.7-8.7) in the PLA but not in CAF treatment (p=0.99; d=0.003, CI: 6.5-10.6), though endotoxins level remained within recommended healthy thresholds. Furthermore, either HIIT-alone or with CAF reduced body fat percentage (p<0.001, ANOVA main training effects), increased muscle mass (p=0.002), reduced testosterone (p=0.005), and increased cardiorespiratory and anaerobic capacity (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:HIIT induces fat loss and decreases androgenicity in women with obesity. However, its side-effects on endotoxemia and hyperinsulinemia are ameliorated by caffeine supplementation.
目的: 我们研究了通过高强度间歇训练 (HIIT) 是否可以改善肥胖的体脂过多、代偿性高胰岛素血症、代谢性内毒素血症、不规则雄激素性、心肺功能降低和无氧适应性。肥胖妇女补充或不补充咖啡因。 方法: 24 例肥胖女性 (亚洲截止点 BMI ≥ 27千克。 m，体脂 = 40%) 被均匀随机分配到咖啡因 (CAF) 和安慰剂 (PLA) 试验中进行 8 周的 HIIT 项目 (10 × 1 min 冲刺，间隔 1 min 休息)。每次训练前补充 CAF (3 mg.kg.bw) 和 PLA。训练前后采用双能 x线吸收法 (DEXA) 评估体脂，同时评估糖耐量 (OGTT) 、脂多糖内毒素、睾酮、心肺和无氧适应性。 结果: 在 OGTT-葡萄糖和胰岛素水平上发现 HIIT 和 CAF 之间存在显著的相互作用 (分别为 p = 0.001，p = 0.049)。单独使用 HIIT 可增加 90 min 时的葡萄糖 (p = 0.049) 和 60 min 时的 OGTT-胰岛素 (p = 0.038)。相反，使用 CAF 的 HIIT 在 120 min 时降低 OGTT-葡萄糖 (p = 0.024)，而不影响 OGTT-胰岛素。HIIT 单独诱导 28.3% 较高的 OGTT-胰岛素 (曲线下面积的效应量 d = 0.59，AUC) 和 14.5% 较高的 OGTT-葡萄糖 (d = 0.28)。相反，使用 CAF 的 HIIT 使 OGTT-葡萄糖降低 19.1% (AUC 为 d = 0.51)，而不改变 OGTT-胰岛素。HIIT 单独对血糖和胰岛素血症的影响与脂多糖内毒素增加 31% 同时发生 (p = 0.07; d = 0.78，CI: 5.7-8.7) 在 PLA 中，但不在 CAF 治疗中 (p = 0.99; d = 0.003，CI: 6.5-10.6)，尽管内毒素水平保持在推荐的健康阈值内。此外，无论是 HIIT-单独或与 CAF 减少身体脂肪百分比 (p
METHODS:Maintaining adequate daily protein intake is important to maintain muscle mass throughout the lifespan. In this regard, the overnight period has been identified as a window of opportunity to increase protein intake in the elderly. However, it is unknown whether pre-sleep protein intake affects next-morning appetite and, consequently, protein intake. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a pre-sleep protein drink on next-morning appetite, energy intake and metabolism. Twelve older individuals (eight males, four females; age: 71.3 ± 4.2 years) took part in a single-blind randomised cross-over study. After a standardised dinner, participants consumed either a 40-g protein drink, isocaloric maltodextrin drink, or placebo water control before bedtime. Next-morning appetite, energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory exchange rate (RER), and plasma acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose, and insulin concentrations were assessed. No between-group differences were observed for appetite and energy intake at breakfast. Furthermore, RMR, RER, and assessed blood markers were not significantly different between any of the treatment groups. Pre-sleep protein intake does not affect next-morning appetite and energy intake and is therefore a viable strategy to increase daily protein intake in an older population.
METHODS:Leptin (LEP) regulates glucose metabolism and energy storage in the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with the upregulation of serum LEP. LEP promoter methylation is associated with obesity. So far, few studies have explored the association of BMI and OA with LEP methylation. We assessed the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and OA on LEP promoter methylation. Data of 1114 participants comprising 583 men and 558 women, aged 30−70 years were retrieved from the Taiwan Biobank Database (2008−2015). Osteoarthritis was self-reported and cases were those who reported having ever been clinically diagnosed with osteoarthritis. BMI was categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity. The mean LEP promoter methylation level in individuals with osteoarthritis was 0.5509 ± 0.00437 and 0.5375 ± 0.00101 in those without osteoarthritis. The interaction between osteoarthritis and BMI on LEP promoter methylation was significant (p-value = 0.0180). With normal BMI as the reference, the mean LEP promoter methylation level was significantly higher in obese osteoarthritic individuals (β = 0.03696, p-value = 0.0187). However, there was no significant association between BMI and LEP promoter methylation in individuals without osteoarthritis, regardless of BMI. In conclusion, only obesity was significantly associated with LEP promoter methylation (higher levels) specifically in osteoarthritic patients.
METHODS:Background For the same BMI, South Asians have a higher body fat percentage, a higher liver fat content and a more adverse metabolic profile than whites. South Asians may have a lower fat oxidation than whites, which could result in an unfavorable metabolic profile when exposed to increased high-fat foods consumption and decreased physical activity as in current modern lifestyle. Objective To determine substrate partitioning, liver fat accumulation and metabolic profile in South Asian and white men in response to overfeeding with high-fat diet under sedentary conditions in a respiration chamber. Design Ten South Asian men (BMI, 18–29 kg/m^2) and 10 white men (BMI, 22–33 kg/m^2), matched for body fat percentage, aged 20–40 year were included. A weight maintenance diet (30% fat, 55% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) was given for 3 days. Thereafter, a baseline measurement of liver fat content (1H-MRS) and blood parameters was performed. Subsequently, subjects were overfed (150% energy requirement) with a high-fat diet (60% fat, 25% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) over 3 consecutive days while staying in a respiration chamber mimicking a sedentary lifestyle. Energy expenditure and substrate use were measured for 3 × 24-h. Liver fat and blood parameters were measured again after the subjects left the chamber. Results The 24-h fat oxidation as a percentage of total energy expenditure did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.30). Overfeeding increased liver fat content ( P = 0.02), but the increase did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.64). In South Asians, overfeeding tended to increase LDL-cholesterol ( P = 0.08), tended to decrease glucose clearance ( P = 0.06) and tended to elevate insulin response ( P = 0.07) slightly more than whites. Conclusions Despite a similar substrate partitioning and similar accretion of liver fat, overfeeding with high-fat under sedentary conditions tended to have more adverse effects on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in South Asians.