Lipid Peroxidation Plays an Important Role in Chemotherapeutic Effects of Temozolomide and the Development of Therapy Resistance in Human Glioblastoma.
- 作者列表："Wu W","Wu Y","Mayer K","von Rosenstiel C","Schecker J","Baur S","Würstle S","Liesche-Starnecker F","Gempt J","Schlegel J
BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant primary brain tumor. Relapse occurs regularly, and the clinical behavior seems to be due to a therapy-resistant subpopulation of glioma-initiating cells that belong to the group of cancer stem cells. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) has been identified as a marker for this cell population, and we have shown previously that ALDH1A3-positive GBM cells are more resistant against temozolomide (TMZ) treatment. However, it is still unclear how ALDH expression mediates chemoresistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS:ALDH1A3 expression was analyzed in 112 specimens from primary and secondary surgical resections of 56 patients with GBM (WHO grade IV). All patients received combined adjuvant radiochemotherapy. For experimental analysis, CRISPR-Cas9-induced knockout cells from three established GBM cell lines (LN229, U87MG, T98G) and two glioma stem-like cell lines were investigated after TMZ treatment. RESULTS:ALDH1A3 knockout cells were more sensitive to TMZ, and oxidative stress seemed to be the molecular process where ALDH1A3 exerts its role in resistance against TMZ. Oxidative stress led to lipid peroxidation, yielding active aldehydes that were detoxified by ALDH enzymatic activity. During the metabolic process, autophagy was induced leading to downregulation of the enzyme, but ALDH1A3 is upregulated to even higher expression levels after finishing the TMZ therapy in vitro. Recurrent GBMs show significantly higher ALDH1A3 expression than the respective samples from the primary tumor, and patients suffering from GBM with high ALDH1A3 expression showed a shorter median survival time (12 months vs 21 months, P < .05). CONCLUSION:Oxidative stress is an important and clinically relevant component of TMZ-induced therapeutic effects. Cytotoxicity seems to be mediated by aldehydes resulting from lipid peroxidation, and ALDH1A3 is able to reduce the number of toxic aldehydes. Therefore, we present a molecular explanation of the role of ALDH1A3 in therapeutic resistance of human GBM cells.
背景: 胶质母细胞瘤 (GBM) 是最恶性的原发性脑肿瘤。复发定期发生，临床行为似乎是由于属于癌症干细胞组的胶质瘤起始细胞的治疗耐药亚群。乙醛脱氢酶 (ALDH) 已被确定为该细胞群的标记物，我们之前已经证明 ALDH1A3-positive GBM 细胞对替莫唑胺 (TMZ) 治疗更耐药。然而，目前还不清楚 ALDH 表达如何介导化疗耐药。 材料和方法: 对 56 例 GBM (WHO ⅳ 级) 患者的 112 例原发性和继发性手术切除标本进行 ALDH1A3 表达分析。所有患者均接受联合辅助放化疗。为了进行实验分析，研究了 TMZ 处理后 3 个已建立的 GBM 细胞系 (LN229 、 U87MG 、 T98G) 和 2 个胶质瘤干细胞样细胞系的 CRISPR-Cas9-induced 敲除细胞。 结果: ALDH1A3 基因敲除细胞对 TMZ 更敏感，氧化应激似乎是 ALDH1A3 抵抗 TMZ 的分子过程。氧化应激导致脂质过氧化，产生由 ALDH 酶活性解毒的活性醛。在代谢过程中，自噬被诱导导致酶的下调，但 ALDH1A3 在体外完成 TMZ 治疗后上调至甚至更高的表达水平。复发性 GBMs 显示 ALDH1A3 表达显著高于原发肿瘤的相应样本，患有高 ALDH1A3 表达的 GBM 的患者显示出较短的中位生存期 (12 个月 vs 21 个月，p
METHODS:PURPOSE:To generate a preclinical model of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant gliomas from glioma patients and design a MRS method to test the compatibility of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) production between the preclinical model and patients. METHODS:Five patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mice were generated from two glioma patients with IDH1 R132H mutation. A PRESS sequence was tailored at 9.4 T, with computer simulation and phantom analyses, for improving 2HG detection in mice. 2HG and other metabolites in the PDX mice were measured using the optimized MRS at 9.4 T and compared with 3 T MRS measurements of the metabolites in the parental-tumor patients. Spectral fitting was performed with LCModel using in-house basis spectra. Metabolite levels were quantified with reference to water. RESULTS:The PRESS TE was optimized to be 96 ms, at which the 2HG 2.25 ppm signal was narrow and inverted, thereby leading to unequivocal separation of the 2HG resonance from adjacent signals from other metabolites. The optimized MRS provided precise detection of 2HG in mice compared to short-TE MRS at 9.4 T. The 2HG estimates in PDX mice were in excellent agreement with the 2HG measurements in the patients. CONCLUSION:The similarity of 2HG production between PDX models and parental-tumor patients indicates that PDX tumors retain the parental IDH metabolic fingerprint and can serve as a preclinical model for improving our understanding of the IDH-mutation associated metabolic reprogramming.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Gliomas consist of a heterogeneous group of tumors. This study aimed to report the incidences of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, 1p19q co-deletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutations, and inactivating mutations of alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) in high-grade gliomas in an ethnically diverse population. METHODS:Records of patients who underwent surgery for high-grade gliomas from January 2013 to March 2017 at our institution were obtained. The patients' age, gender, ethnicity, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), tumor location and biomarkers status were recorded. Data were analyzed using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests, Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank test. RESULTS:181 patients were selected (56 with grade III gliomas, 125 with grade IV gliomas). In the grade III group, 55% had MGMT promoter methylation, 41% had 1p19q co-deletion, 35% had IDH1 mutation and none had ATRX loss. In the grade IV group, 30% had MGMT promoter methylation, 2% had 1p19q co-deletion, 15% had IDH1 mutation and 8% had ATRX loss. After adjusting for effects of age, surgery and pre-operative ADL statuses, only MGMT promoter methylation was found to be significantly associated with longer overall survival time in grade III (p = 0.024) and IV patients (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:The incidences of MGMT promoter methylation and IDH1 mutation were found to be comparable to globally reported rates, but those of 1p19q co-deletion and ATRX loss seemed to be lower in our cohort. MGMT promoter methylation was associated with increased overall survival in our cohort and might serve as favorable prognostic factor.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma multiforme is a CNS cancer characterized by diffuse infiltrative growth, aggressive clinical behavior and very poor prognosis. The state-of-art clinical approach to this disease consists of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy plus concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. Tumor recurrence occurs in virtually all cases, therefore, despite any treatment, the median survival is very low (14.6 months), which makes the approach to these patients a challenging clinical issue. MAIN BODY:The escalating costs and times required for new medications to reach the bedside make repurposing or repositioning of old drugs, when scientific bases allow their use in other pathologies, an appealing strategy. Here, we analyze a number of literature data concerning the antipsychotic chlorpromazine, the founder of the phenothiazines class of drugs, a medication widely used in the clinics for approximately 60 years. The drug exerts its effects on psychiatric patients by interfering with the dopamine receptor D2, although more recent pharmacodynamics studies ascribe chlorpromazine a series of biological effects on cancer cells, all converging in hindering also glioblastoma survival capabilities. SHORT CONCLUSIONS:On these bases, and assisted by the information on the well-established chlorpromazine toxicity and dosage in humans, we designed a Phase II clinical trial involving the combination of chlorpromazine with the standard treatment, temozolomide, in the adjuvant phase of the therapeutic protocol. Patients displaying hypo-methylation of the MGMT gene, and thus intrinsically resistant to temozolomide, will be enrolled. The endpoints of this study are the analysis of toxicity and clinical activity, as evaluated in terms of Progression-Free Survival, of the association of chlorpromazine with the first-line treatment for this very serious form of cancer.