Autocrine BMP4 Signaling Enhances Tumor Aggressiveness via Promoting Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in IDH1-mutant Gliomas.
自分泌 BMP4 信号通过促进 Wnt/β-Catenin 信号增强 IDH1-mutant 胶质瘤的肿瘤侵袭性。
- 作者列表："Zhou Y","Liu Y","Zhang J","Yu D","Li A","Song H","Zhang W","Davis D","Gilbert MR","Liu F","Yang C
:The isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1/2) mutations are frequent genetic abnormalities in the majority of WHO grade II/III glioma and secondary GBM. IDH1-mutated (IDH1Mut) glioma exhibits distinctive patterns in cancer biology and metabolism. In the present study, we showed that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP4) are significantly upregulated in IDH1Mut glioma. Further, we demonstrated that cancer-associated BMP4 is secreted to tumor microenvironment, which enhances the tumor migration and invasion through an autocrine manner. Mechanistically, BMP4 activates its receptor and concomitant SMAD1/5/8 signaling, which potentiates Wnt/β-catenin signaling by enhancing Frizzled receptor expression. LDN-193189, a selective BMP receptor inhibitor, prolonged the overall survival of mice bearing IDH1-mutated intracranial xenografts by limiting BMP/catenin signaling. These findings demonstrate the pivotal role of BMP4 on tumor aggressiveness in IDH1Mut gliomas, suggesting a possible therapeutic strategy for this type of malignancy.
: 异柠檬酸脱氢酶 (IDH1/2) 突变是大多数 WHO ⅱ/ⅲ 级胶质瘤和继发性 GBM 中常见的遗传异常。IDH1-mutated (IDH1Mut) 胶质瘤在癌症生物学和代谢方面表现出独特的模式。在本研究中，我们发现骨形态发生蛋白 (BMP4) 在 IDH1Mut 胶质瘤中显著上调。此外，我们证明了癌症相关的 BMP4 分泌到肿瘤微环境中，通过自分泌方式增强肿瘤的迁移和侵袭。机制上，BMP4 激活其受体和伴随的 SMAD1/5/8 信号，通过增强卷曲受体表达增强 Wnt/β-catenin 信号。LDN-193189 是一种选择性的 BMP 受体抑制剂，通过限制 BMP/catenin 信号通路延长 IDH1-mutated 小鼠颅内移植瘤的总生存期。这些发现证明了 BMP4 对 IDH1Mut 胶质瘤肿瘤侵袭性的关键作用，提示了这种类型恶性肿瘤的可能治疗策略。
METHODS:PURPOSE:To generate a preclinical model of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant gliomas from glioma patients and design a MRS method to test the compatibility of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) production between the preclinical model and patients. METHODS:Five patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mice were generated from two glioma patients with IDH1 R132H mutation. A PRESS sequence was tailored at 9.4 T, with computer simulation and phantom analyses, for improving 2HG detection in mice. 2HG and other metabolites in the PDX mice were measured using the optimized MRS at 9.4 T and compared with 3 T MRS measurements of the metabolites in the parental-tumor patients. Spectral fitting was performed with LCModel using in-house basis spectra. Metabolite levels were quantified with reference to water. RESULTS:The PRESS TE was optimized to be 96 ms, at which the 2HG 2.25 ppm signal was narrow and inverted, thereby leading to unequivocal separation of the 2HG resonance from adjacent signals from other metabolites. The optimized MRS provided precise detection of 2HG in mice compared to short-TE MRS at 9.4 T. The 2HG estimates in PDX mice were in excellent agreement with the 2HG measurements in the patients. CONCLUSION:The similarity of 2HG production between PDX models and parental-tumor patients indicates that PDX tumors retain the parental IDH metabolic fingerprint and can serve as a preclinical model for improving our understanding of the IDH-mutation associated metabolic reprogramming.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Gliomas consist of a heterogeneous group of tumors. This study aimed to report the incidences of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, 1p19q co-deletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutations, and inactivating mutations of alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) in high-grade gliomas in an ethnically diverse population. METHODS:Records of patients who underwent surgery for high-grade gliomas from January 2013 to March 2017 at our institution were obtained. The patients' age, gender, ethnicity, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), tumor location and biomarkers status were recorded. Data were analyzed using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests, Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank test. RESULTS:181 patients were selected (56 with grade III gliomas, 125 with grade IV gliomas). In the grade III group, 55% had MGMT promoter methylation, 41% had 1p19q co-deletion, 35% had IDH1 mutation and none had ATRX loss. In the grade IV group, 30% had MGMT promoter methylation, 2% had 1p19q co-deletion, 15% had IDH1 mutation and 8% had ATRX loss. After adjusting for effects of age, surgery and pre-operative ADL statuses, only MGMT promoter methylation was found to be significantly associated with longer overall survival time in grade III (p = 0.024) and IV patients (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:The incidences of MGMT promoter methylation and IDH1 mutation were found to be comparable to globally reported rates, but those of 1p19q co-deletion and ATRX loss seemed to be lower in our cohort. MGMT promoter methylation was associated with increased overall survival in our cohort and might serve as favorable prognostic factor.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma multiforme is a CNS cancer characterized by diffuse infiltrative growth, aggressive clinical behavior and very poor prognosis. The state-of-art clinical approach to this disease consists of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy plus concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. Tumor recurrence occurs in virtually all cases, therefore, despite any treatment, the median survival is very low (14.6 months), which makes the approach to these patients a challenging clinical issue. MAIN BODY:The escalating costs and times required for new medications to reach the bedside make repurposing or repositioning of old drugs, when scientific bases allow their use in other pathologies, an appealing strategy. Here, we analyze a number of literature data concerning the antipsychotic chlorpromazine, the founder of the phenothiazines class of drugs, a medication widely used in the clinics for approximately 60 years. The drug exerts its effects on psychiatric patients by interfering with the dopamine receptor D2, although more recent pharmacodynamics studies ascribe chlorpromazine a series of biological effects on cancer cells, all converging in hindering also glioblastoma survival capabilities. SHORT CONCLUSIONS:On these bases, and assisted by the information on the well-established chlorpromazine toxicity and dosage in humans, we designed a Phase II clinical trial involving the combination of chlorpromazine with the standard treatment, temozolomide, in the adjuvant phase of the therapeutic protocol. Patients displaying hypo-methylation of the MGMT gene, and thus intrinsically resistant to temozolomide, will be enrolled. The endpoints of this study are the analysis of toxicity and clinical activity, as evaluated in terms of Progression-Free Survival, of the association of chlorpromazine with the first-line treatment for this very serious form of cancer.