Treatment for anxiety: Mindfulness meditation versus escitalopram (TAME): Design of a randomized, controlled non-inferiority trial.
治疗焦虑: 正念冥想与艾司西酞普兰 (TAME): 随机、对照非劣效性试验的设计。
- 作者列表："Hoge EA","Bui E","Mete M","Philip SR","Gabriel C","Ward MJ","Suzuki R","Dutton MA","Simon NM
:Anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) are common, distressing, and impairing. While pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are first-line treatment strategies for anxiety disorders, many patients are reluctant to take psychiatric medication, and many prefer to avoid any kind of mental health treatment due to stigma or distrust of traditional medical care. We present the trial protocol for the first study comparing first-line medication treatment with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), a popular mindfulness meditation training program, for the treatment of anxiety disorders. We will use a non-inferiority, comparative effectiveness trial design, in which individuals with diagnosed anxiety disorders will be randomized to either pharmacotherapy with escitalopram or MBSR for 8 weeks of treatment. Treatment outcome will be based on gold standard symptom severity measures assessed by trained independent evaluators blind to treatment allocation. Secondary outcomes will include key symptom and function measures, as well as tolerability and satisfaction with treatment. Findings will provide crucial information to inform decision making about the relative benefits of MBSR versus a first line medication for anxiety disorders by patients, medical care providers, healthcare insurers and other stakeholders.
: 焦虑症 (广泛性焦虑、社交焦虑、惊恐障碍和广场恐惧症) 是常见的、令人痛苦的和有害的。虽然药物治疗心理治疗是焦虑症的一线治疗策略，但许多患者不愿意服用精神病药物, 由于污名或对传统医疗的不信任，许多人倾向于避免任何形式的精神卫生治疗。我们为第一项比较一线药物治疗与正念减压术 (MBSR) (一种流行的正念冥想训练项目) 焦虑的研究提供了试验方案。我们将使用非劣效性、比较有效性试验设计，其中诊断为焦虑障碍的个体将随机接受艾司西酞普兰或 MBSR 的药物治疗，治疗 8 周。治疗结果将基于金标准症状严重程度测量，由训练有素的独立评估者盲目评估治疗分配。次要结局将包括关键症状和功能措施，以及耐受性和治疗满意度。研究结果将提供至关重要的信息，告知患者、医疗保健提供者、医疗保险公司和其他利益相关者关于 MBSR 与焦虑的相对获益的决策。
METHODS::The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin has a broad spectrum of functions beyond metabolic control. We previously reported that adiponectin acts in the brain to regulate depression-related behaviors. However, its underlying neural substrates have not been identified. Here we show that adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) is expressed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and colocalized with tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), a marker of serotonin (5-HT) neurons. Selective deletion of AdipoR1 in 5-HT neurons induced anhedonia in male mice, as indicated by reduced female urine sniffing time and saccharin preference, and behavioral despair in female mice and enhanced stress-induced decrease in sucrose preference in both sexes. The expression levels of TPH2 were downregulated with a concurrent reduction of 5-HT-immunoreactivity in the DRN and its two major projection regions, the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), in male but not female mice lacking AdipoR1 in 5-HT neurons. In addition, serotonin transporter (SERT) expression was upregulated in both DRN projection fields of male mice but only in the mPFC of female mice. These changes presumably lead to decreased 5-HT synthesis and/or increased 5-HT reuptake, thereby reducing 5-HT transmission. The augmented behavioral responses to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine but not desipramine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, observed in conditional knockout male mice supports deficient 5-HT transmission underlying depression-related phenotypes. Our results indicate that adiponectin acts on 5-HT neurons through AdipoR1 receptors to regulate depression-related behaviors in a sex-dependent manner.
METHODS::Multiple schizophrenia (SCZ) risk loci may be involved in gene co-regulation mechanisms, and analysis of coexpressed gene networks may help to clarify SCZ molecular basis. We have previously identified a dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) coexpression module enriched for SCZ risk genes and associated with cognitive and neuroimaging phenotypes of SCZ, as well as with response to treatment with antipsychotics. Here we aimed to identify regulatory factors modulating this coexpression module and their relevance to SCZ. We performed motif enrichment analysis to identify transcription factor (TF) binding sites in human promoters of genes coexpressed with DRD2. Then, we measured transcript levels of a group of these genes in primary mouse cortical neurons in basal conditions and upon overexpression and knockdown of predicted TFs. Finally, we analyzed expression levels of these TFs in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of SCZ patients. Our in silico analysis revealed enrichment for NURR1 and ERR1 binding sites. In neuronal cultures, the expression of genes either relevant to SCZ risk (Drd2, Gatad2a, Slc28a1, Cnr1) or indexing coexpression in our module (Btg4, Chit1, Osr1, Gpld1) was significantly modified by gain and loss of Nurr1 and Err1. Postmortem DLPFC expression data analysis showed decreased expression levels of NURR1 and ERR1 in patients with SCZ. For NURR1 such decreased expression is associated with treatment with antipsychotics. Our results show that NURR1 and ERR1 modulate the transcription of DRD2 coexpression partners and support the hypothesis that NURR1 is involved in the response to SCZ treatment.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the present study, we provide in silico and experimental evidence for a role of the TFs NURR1 and ERR1 in modulating the expression pattern of genes coexpressed with DRD2 in human DLPFC. Notably, genetic variations in these genes is associated with SCZ risk and behavioral and neuroimaging phenotypes of the disease, as well as with response to treatment. Furthermore, this study presents novel findings on a possible interplay between D2 receptor-mediated dopamine signaling involved in treatment with antipsychotics and the transcriptional regulation mechanisms exerted by NURR1. Our results suggest that coexpression and co-regulation mechanisms may help to explain some of the complex biology of genetic associations with SCZ.
METHODS::Abnormal neurotransmission is central to schizophrenia (SZ). Alterations across multiple neurotransmitter systems in SZ suggest that this illness may be associated with dysregulation of core intracellular processes such as signaling pathways that underlie the regulation and integration of these systems. The AKT-mTOR signaling cascade has been implicated in SZ by gene association, postmortem brain and animal studies. AKT and mTOR are serine/threonine kinases which play important roles in cell growth, proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Both AKT and mTOR require phosphorylation at specific sites for their complete activation. mTOR forms two functionally distinct multiprotein complexes, mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and Complex 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 mediates ribosome biogenesis, protein translation, and autophagy, whereas mTORC2 contributes to actin dynamics. Altered protein synthesis and actin dynamics can lead to an abnormal neuronal morphology resulting in deficits in learning and memory. Currently, there is a lack of direct evidence to support the hypothesis of disrupted mTOR signaling in SZ, and we have addressed this by characterizing this signaling pathway in SZ brain. We found a reduction in AKT and mTOR protein expression and/or phosphorylation state in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from 22 pairs of SZ and matched comparison subjects. We also found reduced protein expression of GβL, a subunit protein common to both mTOR complexes. We further investigated mTOR complex-specific subunit composition and phosphorylation state, and found abnormal mTOR expression in both complexes in SZ DLPFC. These findings provide evidence that proteins associated with the AKT-mTOR signaling cascade are downregulated in SZ DLPFC.