Existence of intratumoral tertiary lymphoid structures is associated with immune cells infiltration and predicts better prognosis in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma.
- 作者列表："Li H","Wang J","Liu H","Lan T","Xu L","Wang G","Yuan K","Wu H
:Tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) play a critical role in the progression of various tumors. However, the dynamics of lymphocyte recruitment during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) clinical progression have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, tissue microarrays and hematoxylin-eosin staining were used to evaluate the existence and degree of TLS in HCC patients. Nine immune biomarkers in intratumoral tissues were examined by immunohistochemical staining. A total of 462 patients were recruited for the study. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that TLS was inversely correlated with the risk of early tumor recurrence (P=0.014), whereas no association was found between TLS and overall survival. Cox regression analysis identified TLS as an independent prognostic factor for early HCC recurrence (P=0.005). In addition, TLS was associated with increased intratumoral CD3+, CD8+, CD20+, and decreased infiltration of Foxp3+ and CD68+ cells. A lower density of PD1+, TIM3+, and LAG3+ were found in TLS+ cases. Sub-analysis revealed the prognostic value of TLS on early-stage HCC (BCLC 0-A, TNM stage I-II) and HCC with solitary nodule. The validation cohort verified the prognostic value of TLS in early-stage HCC patients. These results suggest that TLS-targeted immune-modulating therapies may be a potential strategy for effective immune-mediated tumor suppression.
: 肿瘤相关三级淋巴结构 (TLS) 在多种肿瘤的进展中起关键作用。然而，肝细胞癌 (HCC) 临床进展过程中淋巴细胞募集的动力学尚未完全阐明。在本研究中，组织微阵列和苏木精-伊红染色用于评估 HCC 患者中 TLS 的存在和程度。免疫组织化学染色检测了 9 种瘤内组织中的免疫生物标志物。共招募了 462 例患者进行研究。Kaplan-Meier 分析显示，TLS 与早期肿瘤复发风险呈负相关 (P = 0.014)，而 TLS 与总生存期之间未发现关联。Cox 回归分析确定 TLS 是早期 HCC 复发的独立预后因素 (P = 0.005)。此外，TLS 与瘤内 CD3 + 、 CD8 + 、 CD20 + 增加以及 Foxp3 + 和 CD68 + 细胞浸润减少有关。TLS + 病例中 PD1 + 、 TIM3 + 和 LAG3 + 密度较低。分分析揭示了 TLS 对早期 HCC (BCLC 0-A，TNM 分期 ⅰ-ⅱ) 和 HCC 伴孤立性结节的预后价值。验证队列验证了 TLS 在早期 HCC 患者中的预后价值。这些结果表明，TLS 靶向免疫调节疗法可能是有效免疫介导的肿瘤抑制的潜在策略。
METHODS::Aims: Radiotherapy is predominantly used as one of the treatment modalities to treat local tumor in colorectal cancer (CRC). Hindrance in disease treatment can be attributed to radio-tolerance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) subsistence in the tumor. Understanding the radio-resistant property of CSCs might help in the accomplishment of targeted radiotherapy treatment and increased disease-free survival. Telomeric RAP1 contributes in modulation of various transcription factors leading to aberrant cell proliferation and tumor cell migration. Therefore, we investigated the role of RAP1 in maintaining resistance phenotype and acquired stemness in radio-resistant cells.Main Methods: Characterization of HCT116 derived radio-resistant cell (HCT116RR) was performed by cell survival and DNA damage profiling. RAP1 silenced cells were investigated for DNA damage and expression of CSC markers through western blotting and Real-time PCR post-irradiation. Molecular docking and co-immunoprecipitation study were performed to investigate RAP1 and KLF4 interaction followed by RAP1 protein status profiling in CRC patient.Key findings: We established radio-resistant cells, which showed tolerance to radiotherapy and elevated expression of CSC markers along with RAP1. RAP1 silencing showed enhanced DNA damage and reduced expression of CSC markers post-irradiation. We observed strong physical interaction between RAP1 and KLF4 protein. Furthermore, higher RAP1 expression was observed in the tumor of CRC patients. Dataset analysis also revealed that high expression of RAP1 expression is associated with poor prognosis.Significance: We conclude that higher expression ofRAP1 implicates its possible role in promoting radio-resistance in CRC cells by modulating DNA damage and CSC phenotype.
METHODS::Cancer stem-like cells are rare immortal cells within tumor, which are thought to play important roles in ionizing radiation (IR) therapy-resistance. Quercetin is a natural flavonoid with potential anti-cancer properties without significant cytotoxicity in normal tissues. In this study, we demonstrated that quercetin-IR combination treatment exhibited more dramatic anti-cancer effect than either quercetin or IR treatment alone via targeting colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) and inhibiting the Notch-1 signaling. These effects were further verified by in vivo studies which showed remarkable decrease of the CSCs markers and the expression of Notch-1 signaling proteins in human colon cancer xenografts in nude mice. Co-treatment with quercetin and low dose of radiation significantly reduced the expressions of all five proteins of γ-secretase complex in HT-29 and DLD-1 cells. In addition, ectopic expression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) partly reversed the inhibition effects by the combination therapy. In conclusion, our results indicated that the combination of quercetin (20 μM) and IR (5Gy) might be a promising therapeutic strategy for colon cancer treatment by targeting colon cancer stem-like cells and inhibiting the Notch-1 signaling. In future studies, we intend to further explore the potential therapeutic efficacy of the quercetin-radiation combination treatment in clinical trials.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:Long-term prevention of metastatic disease remains a challenge in locally advanced rectal cancer, and robust pretreatment prognostic factors for metastatic progression are lacking. We hypothesized that detecting circulating tumor-specific DNA (ctDNA) based on hypermethylation of the neuropeptide Y gene (meth-ctDNA) could be a prognostic marker in the neoadjuvant setting; we examined this in a secondary, explorative analysis of a prospective trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Serum samples were prospectively collected in a phase III trial for locally advanced rectal cancer. Positivity for and fractional abundance of meth-ctDNA in baseline samples were estimated. Overall survival (OS) and the rate of distant metastases were compared between meth-ctDNA positive and negative patients; other prognostic factors were controlled for in multivariate Cox regression. Importance of quantitative load was examined by considering the fractional abundance of meth-ctDNA relative to total circulating DNA. RESULTS:Baseline serum samples were available for 146 patients. In total, 30 patients had presence of meth-ctDNA, with no correlation with cT (P=0.8) or cN (P=0.6) stages. Median follow-up was 10.6 years for OS and 5.1 years for freedom from distant metastases. Patients with meth-ctDNA had significantly worse 5-year OS (47% vs. 69%), even when controlling for other prognostic factors (hazard ratio=2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.51). This seemed mainly driven by disparity in the rate of distant metastases (55% vs. 72% at 5 y, P=0.01); hazard ratio=2.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.19-4.07, P=0.01) in multivariate analysis. Increased quantitative load was highly significant for worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Meth-ctDNA could be a potential prognostic marker in the neoadjuvant setting and may, if validated, identify patients at increased risk of distant metastases.