Association between Type of Anesthesia and Risk of Blood Transfusion Events in Primary Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Secondary Analysis Based on a Cohort Study in Singapore.
- 作者列表："Zhu Z","Tong P
:This study evaluated whether the type of anesthesia independently related to risk of blood transfusion events in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after adjusting for other covariates. This was a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing primary unilateral TKA in Singapore. The independent variable was the type of anesthesia and the dependent variable was blood transfusion events. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed adjusting for variables that might affect the choice of anesthesia or blood transfusion events. Additional analyses examined this association by the subgroup analysis by using stratified multivariate logistic regression models. Of all 2,366 patients undergoing primary unilateral TKA, 120 (5.1%) developed blood transfusion events. Sixty-four (4.1%) of 1,560 patients with regional anesthesia (RA) developed blood transfusion events, compared with 56 (6.9%) of 806 patients with general anesthesia (GA; (p = 0.003). After adjusting for age, sex, preoperative hemoglobin, and other variables, patients who received RA had a decreased risk of blood transfusion events compared with those receiving GA (odds ratio [OR]: 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.35-0.81). This risk further decreased in male (OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.07-0.59) and participants whose operation time ≥ 90 minutes (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.19-0.78). Our results indicated that patients receiving primary unilateral TKA who were managed with RA had a significantly decreased risk of blood transfusion events compared with those with GA, especially in male and participants whose operation time ≥ 90 minutes.
: 本研究评估了在校正其他协变量后，麻醉类型是否与全膝关节置换术 (TKA) 患者输血事件风险独立相关。这是对新加坡接受初次单侧 TKA 患者的回顾性队列研究的二次分析。自变量为麻醉类型，因变量为输血事件。进行多变量 logistic 回归分析，调整可能影响麻醉或输血事件选择的变量。附加分析通过使用分层多变量 logistic 回归模型的亚组分析检查了这种关联。在所有 2,366 例初次单侧 TKA 患者中，120 例 (5.1%) 发生输血事件。4.1% 例区域麻醉 (RA) 患者中有 64 例 (1,560) 发生输血事件，而 6.9% 例全身麻醉 (GA) 患者中有 56 例 (806) 发生输血事件; (p = 0.003)。在调整了年龄、性别、术前血红蛋白和其他变量后，与接受 GA 的患者相比，接受 RA 的患者输血事件风险降低 (比值比 [OR]: 0.53, 95% 置信区间 [CI]: 0.35-0.81)。男性 (OR: 0.20，95% CI: 0.07-0.59) 和手术时间 ≥ 90 分钟的参与者 (OR: 0.39，95% CI: 0.19-0.78) 的这种风险进一步降低。我们的结果表明，与 GA 患者相比，接受 RA 治疗的原发性单侧 TKA 患者输血事件的风险显著降低, 尤其是男性和手术时间 ≥ 90 分钟的参与者。
METHODS:Purpose To determine outcomes of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using a living parental hamstring tendon allograft in a consecutive series of 100 children. Methods One hundred consecutive juveniles undergoing ACL reconstruction with a living parental hamstring allograft were recruited prospectively and reviewed 2 years after ACL reconstruction with IKDC Knee Ligament Evaluation, and KT1000 instrumented laxity testing. Skeletally immature participants obtained annual radiographs until skeletal maturity, and long leg alignment radiographs at 2 years. Radiographic Posterior tibial slope was recorded. Results Of 100 juveniles, the median age was 14 years (range 8–16) and 68% male. At surgery, 30 juveniles were graded Tanner 1 or 2, 21 were Tanner 3 and 49 were Tanner 4 or 5. There were no cases of iatrogenic physeal injury or leg length discrepancy on long leg radiographs at 2 years, despite a median increase in height of 8 cm. Twelve patients had an ACL graft rupture and 9 had a contralateral ACL injury. Of those without further ACL injury, 82% returned to competitive sports, IKDC ligament evaluation was normal in 52% and nearly normal in 48%. The median side to side difference on manual maximum testing with the KT1000 was 2 mm (range − 1 to 5). A radiographic PTS of 12° or more was observed in 49%. Conclusions ACL reconstruction in the juvenile with living parental hamstring tendon allograft is a viable procedure associated with excellent clinical stability, patient-reported outcomes and return to sport over 2 years. Further ACL injury to the reconstructed and the contralateral knee remains a significant risk, with identical prevalence observed between the reconstructed and contralateral ACL between 12 and 24 months after surgery. Level of evidence III (Cohort Study).
METHODS:Purpose The purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanics of walking and of the knee joint in the acute phase of ACL injury. Methods We examined 18 patients with acute ACL injuries and 20 healthy adults as controls. The biomechanics of the knee joint and of walking was assessed by 5 inertial sensors fixed with special cuffs to the lower back, the lower third of the thigh, and the lower third of the shank of the right and left legs. The movements and temporal characteristics were recorded while the subject was walking 10 m at a comfortable pace. Based on the results of examination, the patients were divided into two groups: with severe function impairment (6 patients) and with moderate function impairment (12 patients). Results It was found that in the first days post-trauma, not only the knee function was reduced, but the function of the entire lower limb as well. This led to a functional asymmetry. The kinematics of movements in the joints changed in accordance with slower walking. The walking became not only slower, but it was also associated with a decreased impact load in the weight acceptance phase. At later dates, the functional impairments were less pronounced. The total range of flexion motion did not exceed 20 degrees in the first group and 55 degrees in the second one. The injured joint developed functional immobilization within the first days post-injury. This was a guarding response by additional muscle strain to prevent unusual and limit physiological movements in the knee joint. The movements in the knee joint while walking were of small amplitude, rocking, and occurred only under load. The amplitude of the main flexion in the swing phase was reduced. Conclusion The stage of an ACL injury should be assessed not only based on the time post-trauma, but also taking account of the functional parameter—the knee range of flexion while walking. According to our findings, the only factor that had influenced the functional condition of the KJ was the duration of joint immobilization after trauma.
METHODS:Purpose Numerous techniques have been described for the tibial-sided graft preparation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The use of less suture material for graft preparation is thought to improve ingrowth and to reduce the risk for infection. At the same time, the suture construct should be strong enough to resist the surgeon’s pull during tensioning of the transplant. Methods In total, 39 fresh-frozen procine deep flexor tendons were used and prepared as four-strand grafts. In the three-suture group ( n = 19), graft preparation was performed using three tibial-sided sutures, with each tendon end sutured separately. In the one-suture group ( n = 20), a modified graft preparation using only one tibial-sided suture was applied. Each sample underwent load-to-failure testing ( N _max) after cyclic pre-loading. To estimate intraoperative tension forces acting on the tibial-sided suture constructs, the maximal tension force of 26 volunteers on such a construct was measured using a load cell. Results The biomechanical testing of the two different suture constructs showed a significantly higher load-to-failure for the three-suture group (711 N ± 91 N) compared to the one-suture group (347 N ± 24 N) ( p = 0.0001). In both groups, the mode of failure was a tear of the suture in all samples. A failure of the suture–tendon interface was not observed in any case. The median maximal tension force on the construct applied by the 26 volunteers was 134 N (range 73–182 N). Conclusion The presented single-suture tendon graft preparation resisted to smaller failure loads than the conventional three-suture technique. However, no failures in the suture–tendon interface were seen and the failure loads observed were far beyond the tension forces that can be expected intraoperatively. Hence, the single-suture graft preparation technique may be a valuable alternative to the conventional technique.