Design of TLR2-ligand-synthetic long peptide conjugates for therapeutic vaccination of chronic HBV patients.
设计用于慢性 HBV 患者治疗性疫苗接种的 TLR2-ligand-synthetic 长肽结合物。
- 作者列表："Dou Y","Jansen DTSL","van den Bosch A","de Man RA","van Montfoort N","Araman C","van Kasteren SI","Zom GG","Krebber WJ","Melief CJM","Woltman AM","Buschow SI
:Synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccination is a promising new treatment strategy for patients with a chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We have previously shown that a prototype HBV-core protein derived SLP was capable of boosting CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in the presence of a TLR2-ligand in chronic HBV patients ex vivo. For optimal efficacy of a therapeutic vaccine in vivo, adjuvants can be conjugated to the SLP to ensure delivery of both the antigen and the co-stimulatory signal to the same antigen-presenting cell (APC). Dendritic cells (DCs) express the receptor for the adjuvant and are optimally equipped to efficiently process and present the SLP-contained epitopes to T cells. Here, we investigated TLR2-ligand conjugation of the prototype HBV-core SLP. Results indicated that TLR2-ligand conjugation reduced cross-presentation efficiency of the SLP-contained epitope by both monocyte-derived and naturally occurring DC subsets. Importantly, cross-presentation was improved after optimization of the conjugate by either shortening the SLP or by placing a valine-citrulline linker between the TLR2-ligand and the long SLP, to facilitate endosomal dissociation of SLP and TLR2-ligand after uptake. HBV-core SLP conjugates also triggered functional patient T cell responses ex vivo. These results provide an import step forward in the design of a therapeutic SLP-based vaccine to cure chronic HBV.
: 合成长肽 (SLP) 疫苗接种是慢性乙型肝炎病毒 (HBV) 感染患者的一种有前途的新治疗策略。我们以前已经证明，一个原型 HBV 核心蛋白衍生的 SLP 能够促进 CD4 + 和 CD8 + T 细胞反应在慢性 HBV 患者离体 TLR2-ligand 的存在。为了在体内获得治疗性疫苗的最佳疗效, 佐剂可以与 SLP 偶联，以确保将抗原和共刺激信号递送到同一抗原呈递细胞 (APC)。树突状细胞 (DCs) 表达佐剂的受体，并具有最佳的条件，可有效处理含 SLP 的表位并将其呈递给 T 细胞。在这里，我们研究了原型 HBV 核心 SLP 的 TLR2-ligand 接合。结果表明，TLR2-ligand 接合降低了单核细胞来源和天然存在的 DC 亚群对含 SLP 表位的交叉呈递效率。重要的是，在优化结合物后，通过缩短 SLP 或在 TLR2-ligand 和长 SLP 之间放置缬氨酸-瓜氨酸接头，改善了交叉呈递。促进 SLP 和 TLR2-ligand 摄取后的内体解离。HBV 核心 SLP 结合物也触发功能性患者离体 T 细胞反应。这些结果为设计治疗性 SLP 疫苗治疗慢性 HBV 提供了一个重要的步骤。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Opioids are often prescribed for pain in cirrhosis and may increase the risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). AIMS:To assess the association between opioids and HE in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis. METHODS:We used the IQVIA PharMetrics (Durham, NC) database to identify patients aged 18-64 years with cirrhosis. We excluded patients with any decompensation event from 1 year before cirrhosis diagnosis to 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis. Over the 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis, we determined the duration of continuous opioid use and classified use into short term (1-89 days) and chronic (90-180 days). We assessed whether patients developed HE over the subsequent year (ie 6-18 months after cirrhosis diagnosis). We used a landmark analysis and performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to assess associations between opioid use and HE, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS:The cohort included 6451 patients with compensated cirrhosis, of whom 23.3% and 4.7% had short-term and chronic opioid prescriptions respectively. Over the subsequent year, HE occurred in 6.3% patients with chronic opioid prescriptions, 5.0% with short-term opioid prescriptions and 3.3% with no opioid prescriptions. In the multivariable model, an increased risk of HE was observed with short-term (adjusted hazard ratio, HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.94) and chronic opioid prescriptions (adjusted HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.07-3.12) compared to no opioid prescriptions. CONCLUSION:In this national cohort of privately insured patients with cirrhosis, opioid prescriptions were associated with the risk of incident HE. Opioid use should be minimised in those with cirrhosis and, when required, limited to short duration.
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Cirrhosis is characterized by extensive fibrosis of the liver and is a major cause of liver-related mortality. Cirrhosis is partially heritable but genetic contributions to cirrhosis have not been systemically explored. Here, we carry out association analyses with cirrhosis in two large biobanks and determine the effects of cirrhosis associated variants on multiple human disease/traits. METHODS:We carried out a genome-wide association analysis of cirrhosis as a diagnosis in UK BioBank (UKBB; 1088 cases vs. 407 873 controls) and then tested top-associating loci for replication with cirrhosis in a hospital-based cohort from the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI; 875 cases of cirrhosis vs. 30 346 controls). For replicating variants or variants previously associated with cirrhosis that also affected cirrhosis in UKBB or MGI, we determined single nucleotide polymorphism effects on all other diagnoses in UKBB (PheWAS), common metabolic traits/diseases and serum/plasma metabolites. RESULTS:Unbiased genome-wide association study identified variants in/near PNPLA3 and HFE, and candidate variant analysis identified variants in/near TM6SF2, MBOAT7, SERPINA1, HSD17B13, STAT4 and IFNL4 that reproducibly affected cirrhosis. Most affected liver enzyme concentrations and/or aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index. PheWAS, metabolic trait and serum/plasma metabolite association analyses revealed effects of these variants on lipid, inflammatory and other processes including new effects on many human diseases and traits. CONCLUSIONS:We identified eight loci that reproducibly associate with population-based cirrhosis and define their diverse effects on human diseases and traits.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. In recent years, it has been postulated that the rate of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is increasing, especially in nosocomial SBP patients. Aim of the present work was to investigate this hypothesis and its possible clinical consequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and three culture-positive patients between 2007 and 2014 were compared with 81 patients between 2015 and 2017, to study the change of microbiological profiles and their clinical consequences. The cirrhosis patients with bacterascites requiring treatment were included as well. RESULTS:The most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria isolated from ascites were Enterobacterales (31.6%) and in Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococci (22.8%). There was a significant increase in MDROs (22.3% ICU 40.7%, P = .048), accompanied by an increased incidence of sepsis (from 21.4% to 37.0%, P = .021), hepatorenal syndrome (from 40.8% to 58.0%, P = .007) and the need of catecholamine therapy (from 21.4% to 38.8%, P = .036). Nosocomial origin correlated with higher MDRO proportion, more complications and lower antimicrobial susceptibility rates in 12 commonly used antibiotics. MDROs were confirmed as an isolated predictor for inpatient mortality and complications in multivariable logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS:The feeling in clinical practice that MDROs have increased in the last 11 years could be confirmed in our study in Munich, Germany. Nosocomial SBP correlated with significantly higher MDRO rates (nearly 50%) and complication rates. In our opinion, an antibiotic combination with comprehensive effect should be taken into account in nosocomial SBP patients in this region.