Epidemiology of hepatitis B and C virus infection in Central West Argentina
- 作者列表："Villar, Livia Melo","de Paula, Vanessa Salete","Lago, Barbara Vieira","Miguel, Juliana Custódio","Cruz, Helena Medina","Portilho, Moyra Machado","Marques, Vanessa Alves","Ravier, Roberto Pérez","Lo Castro, Ivana","Cuello, Héctor","Espul, Carlos
Little information is available regarding the prevalence of viral hepatitis in Central West Argentina. This study aims to give new information regarding HBV and HCV prevalence, genotypes, and risk factors in Central West Argentina and the suitability of dried blood spot (DBS) sampling for HBV and HCV screening. Methods: A total of 622 individuals were included; the mean age was 36.6 ± 14.3 years and 55.4% were females. HBV and HCV markers were detected using serological and molecular analysis, and risk factors were evaluated using statistical analysis. Results: Using serum samples, the HBsAg prevalence was 1.8%, the rate of HBV exposure (anti-HBc positivity) was 5.3%, and the rate of HBV immunity was 34.9%. HBV DNA was found in four out of 11 HBsAg^+ samples, and the viruses in three of these samples were classified as genotypes A1, A2 and F2a. Multivariate analysis showed that anti-HBs positivity was associated with the level of schooling and history of HBV vaccination. The anti-HCV prevalence was 2.6%, and HCV RNA was found in 11 samples, seven of which contained viruses of genotypes 1a (n = 2), 1b (n = 3) and 2 (n = 2). The sensitivity of the DBS assay for HBsAg, anti-HBc, and anti-HCV was 100%, 66.6%, and 75%, respectively, and the specificity was above 98% for all markers when compared to serum. Conclusion: A low rate of HBV immunity was observed, demonstrating the importance of HBV vaccination. High HCV prevalence was found, and HCV 1b was closely related to other Argentinian isolates. Finally, the performance of DBS testing in this population needs more optimization to increase its sensitivity and specificity.
关于阿根廷中西部病毒性肝炎患病率的信息很少。本研究旨在提供有关阿根廷中西部 HBV 和 HCV 患病率、基因型和危险因素的新信息，以及干血斑 (DBS) 取样用于 HBV 和 HCV 筛查的适用性。方法: 共纳入 622 例个体; 平均年龄 36.6 ± 14.3 岁，55.4% 为女性。使用血清学和分子分析检测 HBV 和 HCV 标志物，并使用统计分析评估危险因素。结果: 血清 HBsAg 阳性率为 1.8%，HBV 接触率 (抗-HBc 阳性率) 为 5.3%，HBV 免疫率为 34.9%。11 份 HBsAg ^ + 标本中有 4 份检出 HBV DNA，其中 3 份标本的病毒分为 A1 、 A2 和 F2a 基因型。多因素分析表明，抗-HBs 阳性与受教育程度和乙肝疫苗接种史有关。抗-HCV 感染率为 2.6%，在 11 份样本中发现 HCV RNA，其中 7 份包含基因型 1a (n = 2) 、 1b (n = 3) 的病毒和 2 (n = 2)。DBS 法检测 HBsAg 、抗-HBc 和抗-HCV 的敏感性分别为 100% 、 66.6% 和 75%, 与血清相比，所有标志物的特异性均在 98% 以上。结论: HBV 免疫低下，表明乙肝疫苗接种的重要性。发现 HCV 高流行，HCV 1b 与其他阿根廷分离株密切相关。最后，DBS 测试在该人群中的性能需要更多的优化，以增加其敏感性和特异性。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Opioids are often prescribed for pain in cirrhosis and may increase the risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). AIMS:To assess the association between opioids and HE in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis. METHODS:We used the IQVIA PharMetrics (Durham, NC) database to identify patients aged 18-64 years with cirrhosis. We excluded patients with any decompensation event from 1 year before cirrhosis diagnosis to 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis. Over the 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis, we determined the duration of continuous opioid use and classified use into short term (1-89 days) and chronic (90-180 days). We assessed whether patients developed HE over the subsequent year (ie 6-18 months after cirrhosis diagnosis). We used a landmark analysis and performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to assess associations between opioid use and HE, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS:The cohort included 6451 patients with compensated cirrhosis, of whom 23.3% and 4.7% had short-term and chronic opioid prescriptions respectively. Over the subsequent year, HE occurred in 6.3% patients with chronic opioid prescriptions, 5.0% with short-term opioid prescriptions and 3.3% with no opioid prescriptions. In the multivariable model, an increased risk of HE was observed with short-term (adjusted hazard ratio, HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.94) and chronic opioid prescriptions (adjusted HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.07-3.12) compared to no opioid prescriptions. CONCLUSION:In this national cohort of privately insured patients with cirrhosis, opioid prescriptions were associated with the risk of incident HE. Opioid use should be minimised in those with cirrhosis and, when required, limited to short duration.
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Cirrhosis is characterized by extensive fibrosis of the liver and is a major cause of liver-related mortality. Cirrhosis is partially heritable but genetic contributions to cirrhosis have not been systemically explored. Here, we carry out association analyses with cirrhosis in two large biobanks and determine the effects of cirrhosis associated variants on multiple human disease/traits. METHODS:We carried out a genome-wide association analysis of cirrhosis as a diagnosis in UK BioBank (UKBB; 1088 cases vs. 407 873 controls) and then tested top-associating loci for replication with cirrhosis in a hospital-based cohort from the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI; 875 cases of cirrhosis vs. 30 346 controls). For replicating variants or variants previously associated with cirrhosis that also affected cirrhosis in UKBB or MGI, we determined single nucleotide polymorphism effects on all other diagnoses in UKBB (PheWAS), common metabolic traits/diseases and serum/plasma metabolites. RESULTS:Unbiased genome-wide association study identified variants in/near PNPLA3 and HFE, and candidate variant analysis identified variants in/near TM6SF2, MBOAT7, SERPINA1, HSD17B13, STAT4 and IFNL4 that reproducibly affected cirrhosis. Most affected liver enzyme concentrations and/or aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index. PheWAS, metabolic trait and serum/plasma metabolite association analyses revealed effects of these variants on lipid, inflammatory and other processes including new effects on many human diseases and traits. CONCLUSIONS:We identified eight loci that reproducibly associate with population-based cirrhosis and define their diverse effects on human diseases and traits.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. In recent years, it has been postulated that the rate of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is increasing, especially in nosocomial SBP patients. Aim of the present work was to investigate this hypothesis and its possible clinical consequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and three culture-positive patients between 2007 and 2014 were compared with 81 patients between 2015 and 2017, to study the change of microbiological profiles and their clinical consequences. The cirrhosis patients with bacterascites requiring treatment were included as well. RESULTS:The most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria isolated from ascites were Enterobacterales (31.6%) and in Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococci (22.8%). There was a significant increase in MDROs (22.3% ICU 40.7%, P = .048), accompanied by an increased incidence of sepsis (from 21.4% to 37.0%, P = .021), hepatorenal syndrome (from 40.8% to 58.0%, P = .007) and the need of catecholamine therapy (from 21.4% to 38.8%, P = .036). Nosocomial origin correlated with higher MDRO proportion, more complications and lower antimicrobial susceptibility rates in 12 commonly used antibiotics. MDROs were confirmed as an isolated predictor for inpatient mortality and complications in multivariable logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS:The feeling in clinical practice that MDROs have increased in the last 11 years could be confirmed in our study in Munich, Germany. Nosocomial SBP correlated with significantly higher MDRO rates (nearly 50%) and complication rates. In our opinion, an antibiotic combination with comprehensive effect should be taken into account in nosocomial SBP patients in this region.