An alpha-defensin gene single nucleotide polymorphism modulates the gut microbiota and may alter the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease.
- 作者列表："Rashidi A","Herman A","Gomes ALC","Peled JU","Jenq RR","Brereton DG","Staley C","Blazar BR","Weisdorf DJ
:We previously reported a protective association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs4415345G and rs4610776A alleles) of Paneth cell α-defensin-5 against acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Because dysbiosis has been associated with aGVHD, we hypothesized that these SNPs may have a gut microbiota signature. In Lasso regression analysis of 248 healthy individuals, rs4415345G was associated with a higher abundance of Odoribacter splanchnicus, an anaerobic butyrogenic commensal. In multivariable analysis of data from 613 allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant recipients, peri-engraftment presence of O. splanchnicus was associated with ~50% lower risk for grade II-IV aGVHD (hazard ratio 0·53, 95% confidence interval 0·28-1·00, P = 0·05). O. splanchnicus may protect rs4415345G individuals against aGVHD.
: 我们以前报道过 Paneth 细胞 α-防御素-5 单核苷酸多态性 (SNPs; rs4415345G 和 rs4610776A 等位基因) 对急性移植物抗宿主病 (aGVHD) 的保护性关联。因为生态失调与 aGVHD 相关，我们假设这些 SNPs 可能具有肠道菌群特征。在 248 例健康个体的 Lasso 回归分析中，rs4415345G 与较高丰度的 Odoribacter splanchnicus (一种厌氧的产酪氨共生菌) 相关。在对 613 例异基因造血细胞移植受者数据的多变量分析中，植入周围存在 O。 splanchnicus 与 II-IV 级 aGVHD 的风险降低 ~ 50% 相关 (风险比 0 · 53，95% 置信区间 0 · 28-1 · 00，P = 0 · 05)。O.内脏可能保护 rs4415345G 个体对抗 aGVHD。
METHODS::Chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) urgently need new biomarkers as a significant proportion of patients, do not respond to current medications. Inflammation is a common factor in these diseases and microbial sensing in the intestinal tract is critical to initiate the inflammation. We have identified ELMO1 (Engulfment and Cell Motility Protein-1) as a microbial sensor in epithelial and phagocytic cells that turns on inflammatory signals. Using a stem-cell-based "gut-in-a-dish" coculture model, we studied the interactions between microbes, epithelium and monocytes in the context of IBD. To mimic the in-vivo cell physiology, enteroid-derived monolayers (EDMs) were generated from the organoids isolated from WT and ELMO1-/- mice and colonic biopsies of IBD patients. The EDMs were infected with the IBD-associated microbes to monitor the inflammatory responses. ELMO1-depleted EDMs displayed a significant reduction in bacterial internalization, a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine productions and monocyte recruitment. The expression of ELMO1 is elevated in the colonic epithelium and in the inflammatory infiltrates within the lamina propria of IBD patients where the higher expression is positively correlated with the elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, MCP-1 and TNF-α. MCP-1 is released from the epithelium and recruits monocytes to the site of inflammation. Once recruited, monocytes require ELMO1 to engulf the bacteria and propagate a robust TNF-α storm. These findings highlight that the dysregulated epithelial ELMO1→MCP-1 axis can serve as an early biomarker in the diagnostics of IBD and other inflammatory disorders.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Peripheral blood eosinophilia (PBE) is a biomarker of an aggressive multiyear natural history in adults with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Additionally, PBE at diagnosis is associated with higher disease activity in pediatric-onset IBD. We sought to determine if PBE can function as a biomarker of long-term disease severity in pediatric-onset IBD patients who are followed into adulthood. METHODS:We analyzed a consented, prospective, natural history IBD registry at an adult tertiary center from 2009 to 2018. Prevalence of PBE was evaluated in both pediatric- and adult-onset IBD patients. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and health care utilization data were compared in patients with and without PBE. RESULTS:Among 2800 adult IBD patients, 23.4% had pediatric-onset disease. PBE was found in 34% of the pediatric-onset patients compared with 26.8% of the adult-onset IBD patients (P < 0.001). In the pediatric-onset IBD cohort, PBE was associated with higher rates of allergies (P < 0.0001), but not of asthma, allergic rhinitis, or primary sclerosing cholangitis. In the adult IBD patients with pediatric-onset disease, PBE was associated with higher rates of C-reactive protein elevation (P < 0.0001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate elevation (P < 0.0001), higher health care utilization, and higher average health care charges per year (P < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS:Peripheral blood eosinophilia was more prevalent in adult IBD patients with pediatric-onset compared with adult-onset disease. Among all IBD patients with long-term follow-up, PBE defined a subgroup with more severe illness. These data suggest that PBE may be a biomarker for a high-risk subgroup with high cost trajectory and long-term severity in pediatric-onset IBD that persists into adulthood.
METHODS::Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders with a complex pathogenesis, affecting people of all ages. They are characterized by alternating phases of clinical relapse and remission, depending on the fine balance between immune cells and the gut microbiota. The cross talk between cells of the immune system and the gut microbiota can result in either tolerance or inflammation, according to multifactorial triggers, ranging from environmental factors to genetic susceptibility. Glucocorticoid (GC) administration remains the first-line treatment for IBDs, although long-term use is limited by development of serious adverse effects. Recently, new alternative pharmacological therapies have been developed, although these are not always effective in IBD patients. There is a constant demand for effective new drug targets to guarantee total remission and improve the quality of life for IBD patients. The glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) has been implicated as a promising candidate for this purpose, in view of its powerful anti-inflammatory effects that mimic those of GCs while avoiding their unwanted adverse reactions. Here we present and discuss the latest findings about the involvement of GILZ in IBDs.