Fecal IgA Levels Are Determined by Strain-Level Differences in Bacteroides ovatus and Are Modifiable by Gut Microbiota Manipulation.
粪便 IgA 水平由绵羊拟杆菌的菌株水平差异决定，可通过肠道菌群操作进行调节。
- 作者列表："Yang C","Mogno I","Contijoch EJ","Borgerding JN","Aggarwala V","Li Z","Siu S","Grasset EK","Helmus DS","Dubinsky MC","Mehandru S","Cerutti A","Faith JJ
:Fecal IgA production depends on colonization by a gut microbiota. However, the bacterial strains that drive gut IgA production remain largely unknown. Here, we assessed the IgA-inducing capacity of a diverse set of human gut microbial strains by monocolonizing mice with each strain. We identified Bacteroides ovatus as the species that best induced gut IgA production. However, this induction varied bimodally across different B. ovatus strains. The high IgA-inducing B. ovatus strains preferentially elicited more IgA production in the large intestine through the T cell-dependent B cell-activation pathway. Remarkably, a low-IgA phenotype in mice could be robustly and consistently converted into a high-IgA phenotype by transplanting a multiplex cocktail of high IgA-inducing B. ovatus strains but not individual ones. Our results highlight the critical importance of microbial strains in driving phenotype variation in the mucosal immune system and provide a strategy to robustly modify a gut immune phenotype, including IgA production.
: 粪便 IgA 的产生依赖于肠道菌群的定植。然而，驱动肠道 IgA 产生的细菌菌株在很大程度上仍然未知。在此，我们通过对每种菌株的小鼠进行单定植，评估了一组不同的人类肠道微生物菌株的 IgA 诱导能力。我们确定卵拟杆菌是最能诱导肠道 IgA 产生的物种。然而，这种诱导在不同的卵圆球虫菌株间呈双倍体变化。高 IgA 诱导的卵圆杆菌菌株通过 T 细胞依赖性 B 细胞活化途径优先诱导大肠产生更多的 IgA。值得注意的是，通过移植高 IgA 诱导的绵羊 B.ovatus 菌株而不是个体菌株的多重混合物，小鼠的低 IgA 表型可以稳健且一致地转化为高 IgA 表型。我们的结果强调了微生物菌株在驱动粘膜免疫系统表型变异中的关键重要性，并提供了一种稳健地改变肠道免疫表型的策略，包括 IgA 的产生。
METHODS::Chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) urgently need new biomarkers as a significant proportion of patients, do not respond to current medications. Inflammation is a common factor in these diseases and microbial sensing in the intestinal tract is critical to initiate the inflammation. We have identified ELMO1 (Engulfment and Cell Motility Protein-1) as a microbial sensor in epithelial and phagocytic cells that turns on inflammatory signals. Using a stem-cell-based "gut-in-a-dish" coculture model, we studied the interactions between microbes, epithelium and monocytes in the context of IBD. To mimic the in-vivo cell physiology, enteroid-derived monolayers (EDMs) were generated from the organoids isolated from WT and ELMO1-/- mice and colonic biopsies of IBD patients. The EDMs were infected with the IBD-associated microbes to monitor the inflammatory responses. ELMO1-depleted EDMs displayed a significant reduction in bacterial internalization, a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine productions and monocyte recruitment. The expression of ELMO1 is elevated in the colonic epithelium and in the inflammatory infiltrates within the lamina propria of IBD patients where the higher expression is positively correlated with the elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, MCP-1 and TNF-α. MCP-1 is released from the epithelium and recruits monocytes to the site of inflammation. Once recruited, monocytes require ELMO1 to engulf the bacteria and propagate a robust TNF-α storm. These findings highlight that the dysregulated epithelial ELMO1→MCP-1 axis can serve as an early biomarker in the diagnostics of IBD and other inflammatory disorders.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Peripheral blood eosinophilia (PBE) is a biomarker of an aggressive multiyear natural history in adults with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Additionally, PBE at diagnosis is associated with higher disease activity in pediatric-onset IBD. We sought to determine if PBE can function as a biomarker of long-term disease severity in pediatric-onset IBD patients who are followed into adulthood. METHODS:We analyzed a consented, prospective, natural history IBD registry at an adult tertiary center from 2009 to 2018. Prevalence of PBE was evaluated in both pediatric- and adult-onset IBD patients. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and health care utilization data were compared in patients with and without PBE. RESULTS:Among 2800 adult IBD patients, 23.4% had pediatric-onset disease. PBE was found in 34% of the pediatric-onset patients compared with 26.8% of the adult-onset IBD patients (P < 0.001). In the pediatric-onset IBD cohort, PBE was associated with higher rates of allergies (P < 0.0001), but not of asthma, allergic rhinitis, or primary sclerosing cholangitis. In the adult IBD patients with pediatric-onset disease, PBE was associated with higher rates of C-reactive protein elevation (P < 0.0001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate elevation (P < 0.0001), higher health care utilization, and higher average health care charges per year (P < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS:Peripheral blood eosinophilia was more prevalent in adult IBD patients with pediatric-onset compared with adult-onset disease. Among all IBD patients with long-term follow-up, PBE defined a subgroup with more severe illness. These data suggest that PBE may be a biomarker for a high-risk subgroup with high cost trajectory and long-term severity in pediatric-onset IBD that persists into adulthood.
METHODS::Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders with a complex pathogenesis, affecting people of all ages. They are characterized by alternating phases of clinical relapse and remission, depending on the fine balance between immune cells and the gut microbiota. The cross talk between cells of the immune system and the gut microbiota can result in either tolerance or inflammation, according to multifactorial triggers, ranging from environmental factors to genetic susceptibility. Glucocorticoid (GC) administration remains the first-line treatment for IBDs, although long-term use is limited by development of serious adverse effects. Recently, new alternative pharmacological therapies have been developed, although these are not always effective in IBD patients. There is a constant demand for effective new drug targets to guarantee total remission and improve the quality of life for IBD patients. The glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) has been implicated as a promising candidate for this purpose, in view of its powerful anti-inflammatory effects that mimic those of GCs while avoiding their unwanted adverse reactions. Here we present and discuss the latest findings about the involvement of GILZ in IBDs.