Inflammation-targeting polymeric nanoparticles deliver sparfloxacin and tacrolimus for combating acute lung sepsis.
- 作者列表："Yang Y","Ding Y","Fan B","Wang Y","Mao Z","Wang W","Wu J
:Sepsis is a complex disorder with very high morbidity and mortality; it can occur when an immune disorder triggers an invasion of pathogens in the host. Although many potential anti-infective and immunosuppressive treatments have been reported, we still do not have effective means of treating sepsis in clinic. The aim of this study is to develop a nanomaterial system that targets the site of inflammation and carries a combination of multiple drugs to better treat sepsis and alleviate its symptoms. We selected poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) with good biocompatibility and degradability to prepare the nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with broad-spectrum antibiotic Sparfloxacin (SFX) and anti-inflammatory immunosuppressant Tacrolimus (TAC) by an emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The targeting ability of the NPs toward inflammatory sites is endowed by grafting of the γ3 peptide (NNQKIVNLKEKVAQLEA) that can specifically bind to the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which is highly expressed on the surface of inflammatory endothelial cells. The drug loaded γ3-PLGA NPs have excellent cytocompatibility, low hemolysis ratio, and systemic toxicity. The drug loaded γ3-PLGA NPs also have excellent antibacterial property to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and can effectively reduce the inflammation and immune response in acute lung infection mice. This study provides a simple and robust nanoplatform to treat lung infection induced sepsis, which may pave a way to design multifunctional nanomedicine for clinical translation.
: 脓毒症是一种复杂的疾病，具有非常高的发病率和死亡率; 当免疫紊乱触发宿主中病原体的入侵时，它可以发生。虽然目前已经报道了许多潜在的抗感染和免疫抑制治疗方法，但临床上仍没有有效的治疗手段。本研究的目的是开发一种靶向炎症部位的纳米材料系统，并携带多种药物的组合，以更好地治疗脓毒症并缓解其症状。我们选用具有良好生物相容性和降解性的聚乳酸-乙交酸共聚物 (PLGA) 制备了负载广谱抗生素司帕沙星 (SFX) 的纳米粒 (NPs)。和抗炎免疫抑制剂他克莫司 (TAC) 通过乳化-溶剂蒸发法。NPs 对炎症部位的靶向能力是通过移植可与细胞间粘附分子-1 (ICAM-1) 特异性结合的 γ 3 肽 (NNQKIVNLKEKVAQLEA) 赋予的, 其在炎症内皮细胞表面高度表达。载药 γ 3-plga NPs 具有优良的细胞相容性、低溶血比和全身毒性。载药 γ 3-plga NPs 对革兰阳性菌和革兰阴性菌均具有良好的抗菌性能，可有效减轻急性肺部感染小鼠的炎症和免疫反应。这项研究提供了一个简单而强大的纳米平台来治疗肺部感染诱导的脓毒症，这可能为设计用于临床转化的多功能纳米药物铺平道路。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A critical role for sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway in the control of airway function has been demonstrated in respiratory diseases. Here, we address S1P contribution in a mouse model of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:C57BL/6J mice have been exposed to room air or cigarette smoke up to 11 months and killed at different time points. Functional and molecular studies have been performed. KEY RESULTS:Cigarette smoke caused emphysematous changes throughout the lung parenchyma coupled to a progressive collagen deposition in both peribronchiolar and peribronchial areas. The high and low airways showed an increased reactivity to cholinergic stimulation and α-smooth muscle actin overexpression. Similarly, an increase in airway reactivity and lung resistances following S1P challenge occurred in smoking mice. A high expression of S1P, Sph-K2 , and S1P receptors (S1P2 and S1P3 ) has been detected in the lung of smoking mice. Sphingosine kinases inhibition reversed the increased cholinergic response in airways of smoking mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:S1P signalling up-regulation follows the disease progression in smoking mice and is involved in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Our study defines a therapeutic potential for S1P inhibitors in management of airways hyperresponsiveness associated to emphysema in smokers with both asthma and COPD.
METHODS::The interim results from this 90-day multi-dose, inhalation toxicology study with life-time post-exposure observation has shown an important fundamental difference in persistence and pathological response in the lung between brake dust derived from brake-pads manufactured with chrysotile, TiO2 or chrysotile alone in comparison to the amphiboles, crocidolite and amosite asbestos. In the brake dust exposure groups no significant pathological response was observed at any time. Slight macrophage accumulation of particles was noted. Wagner-scores, were from 1 to 2 (1 = air-control group) and were similar to the TiO2 group. Chrysotile being biodegradable, shows a weakening of its matrix and breaking into short fibers & particles that can be cleared by alveolar macrophages and continued dissolution. In the chrysotile exposure groups, particle laden macrophage accumulation was noted leading to a slight interstitial inflammatory response (Wagner-score 1-3). There was no peribronchiolar inflammation and occasional very slight interstitial fibrosis. The histopathology and the confocal analyses clearly differentiate the pathological response from amphibole asbestos, crocidolite and amosite, compared to that from the brake dust and chrysotile. Both crocidolite and amosite induced persistent inflammation, microgranulomas, and fibrosis (Wagner-scores 4), which persisted through the post exposure period. The confocal microscopy of the lung and snap-frozen chestwalls quantified the extensive inflammatory response and collagen development in the lung and on the visceral and parietal surfaces. The interim results reported here, provide a clear basis for differentiating the effects from brake dust exposure from those following amphibole asbestos exposure. The subsequent results through life-time post-exposure will follow.
METHODS::The respiratory tract is lined by a pseudo-stratified epithelium from the nose to terminal bronchioles. This first line of defense of the lung against external stress includes five main cell types: basal, suprabasal, club, goblet and multiciliated cells, as well as rare cells such as ionocytes, neuroendocrine and tuft/brush cells. At homeostasis, this epithelium self-renews at low rate but is able of fast regeneration upon damage. Airway epithelial cell lineages during regeneration have been investigated in the mouse by genetic labeling, mainly after injuring the epithelium with noxious agents. From these approaches, basal cells have been identified as progenitors of club, goblet and multiciliated cells, but also of ionocytes and neuroendocrine cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled to lineage inference algorithms, has independently allowed the establishment of comprehensive pictures of cell lineage relationships in both mouse and human. In line with genetic tracing experiments in mouse trachea, studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) have shown that basal cells first differentiate into club cells, which in turn mature into goblet cells or differentiate into multiciliated cells. In the human airway epithelium, single-cell RNAseq has identified novel intermediate populations such as deuterosomal cells, 'hybrid' mucous-multiciliated cells and progenitors of rare cells. Novel differentiation dynamics, such as a transition from goblet to multiciliated cells have also been discovered. The future of cell lineage relationships in the respiratory tract now resides in the combination of genetic labeling approaches with single-cell RNAseq to establish, in a definitive manner, the hallmarks of cellular lineages in normal and pathological situations.