Recent advances in electrochemical sensors for amoxicillin detection in biological and environmental samples.
- 作者列表："Hrioua A","Loudiki A","Farahi A","Bakasse M","Lahrich S","Saqrane S","El Mhammedi MA
:Amoxicillin (AMX) is among the most successful antibiotics used for human therapy. It is used extensively to prevent or treat bacterial infections in humans and animals. However, the widespread distribution and excess utilization of AMX can be an environmental and health risk due to the hazardous potential associated to its pharmaceutical industries effluents. Besides, their extensive use in food animal production may result in some undesirable residues in food, e.g. meat, eggs and milk. Consequently, at high enough concentrations in biological fluids, AMX may be responsible of various diseases such as nausea, vomiting, rashes, and antibiotic-associated colitis. For this reason, the detection and quantification of amoxicillin in pharmaceuticals, biological fluids, environmental samples and foodstuffs require new electroanalytical techniques with sensitive and rapid measurement abilities. This review discusses recent advances in the development of electrochemical sensors and bio-sensors for AMX analysis in complex matrices such as pharmaceuticals, biological fluids, environmental water and foodstuffs. The main electrochemical sensors used are based on chemically modified electrodes involving carbon materials and nanomaterials, nanoparticles, polymers and biological recognition molecules.
: 阿莫西林 (AMX) 是用于人类治疗的最成功的抗生素之一。它广泛用于预防或治疗人类和动物的细菌感染。然而，由于其制药工业流出物的潜在危险，AMX的广泛分布和过度利用可能是环境和健康风险。此外，它们在食品动物生产中的广泛使用可能会在食品中产生一些不希望的残留物，例如肉、蛋和奶。因此，在生物流体中足够高的浓度下，AMX可能导致各种疾病，例如恶心、呕吐、皮疹和抗生素相关的结肠炎。因此，在药物、生物流体、环境样品和食品中阿莫西林的检测和定量需要具有灵敏和快速测量能力的新型电分析技术。本文综述了电化学传感器和生物传感器在复杂基质 (如药物、生物流体、环境水和食品) 中用于AMX分析的最新进展。使用的主要电化学传感器是基于化学修饰的电极，涉及碳材料和纳米材料、纳米颗粒、聚合物和生物识别分子。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.