An electrochemical impedimetric sensing platform based on a peptide aptamer identified by high-throughput molecular docking for sensitive l-arginine detection.
- 作者列表："He Y","Zhou L","Deng L","Feng Z","Cao Z","Yin Y
:As a primary building block for protein synthesis, l-arginine (l-Arg) is also a precursor for the synthesis of important metabolites, and is involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. l-Arg is a potential biomarker in clinical diagnosis and nutritional status assessment, making it valuable to quantify and monitor this biomolecule. In this study, peptide aptamers that specifically interact with l-Arg were identified by high-throughput molecular docking, and the binding capacities between the synthesized peptide aptamers and l-Arg were then measured by isothermal titration calorimetry. We hypothesized that the peptide aptamer with the greatest binding capacity could be used as the recognition element in a biosensor. A chemosynthetic peptide aptamer modified with mercaptan and spacer units (thioctic acid-GGGG-FGHIHEGY) was thus used to construct label-free electrochemical impedimetric biosensors for l-Arg based on gold electrodes. The optimum biosensor showed good sensitivity to l-Arg with a linear range of 0.1 pM-0.1 mM, and the calculated limit of detection (three times the signal-to-noise ratio) was 0.01 pM. Interference studies and assays of diluted serum samples were also carried out, and satisfactory results obtained. In conclusion, a potential method of peptide aptamer screening and biosensor fabrication for detecting small biological molecules was demonstrated.
: 作为蛋白质合成的主要组成部分，l-精氨酸 (l-Arg) 也是合成重要代谢物的前体，参与多种生理和病理生理过程。l-Arg是临床诊断和营养状态评估中的潜在生物标志物，使得定量和监测该生物分子具有价值。本研究通过高通量分子对接鉴定了与l-Arg特异性相互作用的肽适配体，然后通过等温滴定量热法测定了合成的肽适配体与l-Arg的结合能力。我们假设具有最大结合能力的肽适体可以用作生物传感器中的识别元件。因此，使用硫醇和间隔单元修饰的化学合成肽适体 (硫辛酸-GGGG-FGHIHEGY) 构建基于金电极的l-Arg的无标记电化学阻抗生物传感器。最佳生物传感器对l-Arg显示出良好的灵敏度，线性范围为0.1 ± pM-0.1 mM，计算的检测限 (信噪比的三倍) 为0.01 pM。还进行了稀释血清样品的干扰研究和测定，并获得了满意的结果。总之，证明了用于检测生物小分子的肽适体筛选和生物传感器制备的潜在方法。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.