Silver or gold? A comparison of nanoparticle modified electrochemical genosensors based on cobalt porphyrin-DNA.
- 作者列表："Malecka K","Kaur B","Cristaldi DA","Chay CS","Mames I","Radecka H","Radecki J","Stulz E
:We applied a cobalt-porphyrin modified DNA as electrochemical marker, which was attached to nanoparticles, to detect specific DNA sequences. We compare the performance of gold and silver NPs in oligonucleotide sensors to determine if a change in metal will lead to either higher sensitivity or different selectivity, based on the redox behaviour of silver vs. gold. Surprisingly, we find that using either gold or silver NPs yields very similar overall performance. The electrochemical measurements of both types of sensors show the same redox behaviour which is dominated by the cobalt porphyrin, indicating that the electron pathway does not include the NP, but there is direct electron transfer between the porphyrin and the electrode. Both sensors show a linear response in the range of 5 × 10-17-1 × 10-16 M; the limit of detection (LOD) is 3.8 × 10-18 M for the AuNP sensor, and 5.0 × 10-18 M for the AgNP sensor, respectively, which corresponds to the detection of about 20-50 DNA molecules in the analyte. Overall, the silver system results in a better DNA economy and using cheaper starting materials for the NPs, thus shows better cost-effectivness and could be more suitable for the mass-production of highly sensitive DNA sensors.
: 我们应用钴卟啉修饰的DNA作为电化学标记，其附着于纳米颗粒，以检测特定的DNA序列。我们比较了金和银NPs在寡核苷酸传感器中的性能，以确定金属的变化是否会导致更高的灵敏度或不同的选择性，基于银与金的氧化还原行为。令人惊讶的是，我们发现使用金或银NPs产生非常相似的整体性能。两种类型的传感器的电化学测量显示由钴卟啉主导的相同的氧化还原行为，表明电子途径不包括NP，但是在卟啉和电极之间存在直接的电子转移。两种传感器均在5 × 10-17-1 × 10-16 M范围内呈现线性响应; AuNP传感器的检测限 (LOD) 分别为3.8 × 10-18 M，AgNP传感器为5.0 × 10-18 M，这对应于分析物中约20-50个DNA分子的检测。总的来说，银系统导致更好的DNA经济性，并使用更便宜的起始材料用于NPs，因此显示出更好的成本效益，并且可能更适合高灵敏度DNA传感器的大规模生产。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.