Electric stimulation promotes growth, mineral uptake, and antioxidant accumulation in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala).
- 作者列表："Lee S","Oh MM
:Several studies have demonstrated that electric treatment has a positive effect, respectively, on germination, root growth and post-harvest quality. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of research on the effect of electric treatment on growth characteristics and quality of whole plants. Here, we explored the effect of electric fields on two cultivars of kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). Three levels of electric current (10, 50, and 100 mA) were applied to the nutrient solution of hydroponically grown plants for three weeks. Kale plants subjected to the electric fields, particularly 50 mA, had higher fresh and dry weights than the control. The absence of an electric field in a Faraday cage caused a significant decrease in shoot and root growth compared with the natural electric field (control). Electrostimulation enhanced nutrient uptake by activating root hair formation and active ion transport. Plants grown under 50 mA contained 72% more calcium, 57% more total phenolic compounds, and had a 70% greater antioxidant capacity than the control. This work provides foundational information regarding the effects of electrical stimulus on plants, which could enable the development of innovative culture technologies to improve crop yields and quality.
: 几项研究表明，电处理分别对发芽、根系生长和收获后质量有积极影响。然而，电处理对全株生长特性和品质的影响仍缺乏研究。在这里，我们探讨了电场对两个羽衣甘蓝品种的影响。将三个水平的电流 (10、50和100 mA) 施加到水培植物的营养液中，持续三周。经受电场 (特别是50 mA) 的羽衣甘蓝植物具有比对照更高的鲜重和干重。与自然电场 (对照) 相比，法拉第笼中没有电场导致芽和根生长的显著降低。电刺激通过激活根毛形成和活性离子转运增强营养吸收。生长在50 mA以下的植物含有72% 以上的钙，57% 以上的总酚类化合物，并且具有比对照高70% 的抗氧化能力。这项工作提供了关于电刺激对植物影响的基础信息，这可以促进创新培养技术的发展，以提高作物产量和质量。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.