Comparison of dynamic arterial and venous pressure between metal needles and plastic cannulas in incident hemodialysis patients with arteriovenous graft.
- 作者列表："Choi SR","Park P","Han S","Kim C","Joo N","Kim JK","Song YR","Kim HJ","Kim SG","Lee HS
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTS:We hypothesized that plastic cannulae with 17-gauge inner needle compared to 16-gauge metal needles can have stable dynamic venous and arterial pressure maintaining prescribed blood flow safely during a hemodialysis treatment. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND MEASUREMENTS:A single-center, prospective, randomized, open-label clinical trial was conducted involving 16 incident hemodialysis patients who had arteriovenous graft placed as their first arteriovenous access. Subjects were randomized to metal needle group (n = 8) versus plastic cannula group (n = 8). We measured serial dynamic pre-pump arterial and venous pressure under five different blood pump flow rates (150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 mL/min). RESULTS:The mean age of patients was 67.6 ± 8.5 (range: 51-81) years, and six patients (37.5%) were male. Patients with plastic cannula showed less negative arterial pre-pump pressures and lower venous pressures than those with metal needles at all prescribed blood flow rates, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION:The plastic cannula had more stable arterial and venous pressures at prescribed blood pump flow rates than those pressures of the metal needle in incident patients with arteriovenous graft during hemodialysis.
背景和目的: 我们假设，与16号金属针相比，17号内针塑料套管可以在血液透析治疗期间安全地保持规定的血流，具有稳定的动态静脉和动脉压。 设计、设置、参与者和测量: 进行了一项单中心、前瞻性、随机、开放标签的临床试验，纳入了16例初次使用动静脉移植物作为首次动静脉通路的血液透析患者.受试者被随机分为金属针组 (n = 8) 与塑料套管组 (n = 8)。我们测量了五种不同血泵流速 (150、200、250、300和350 mL/min) 下的连续动态预泵动脉和静脉压。 结果: 患者的平均年龄为67.6 ± 8.5 (范围: 51-81) 岁，6例患者 (37.5%) 为男性。使用塑料套管的患者在所有规定的血流速度下，与使用金属针的患者相比，动脉预泵负压和静脉压更低，差异有统计学意义 (p <0.001)。 结论: 在血液透析期间动静脉移植患者中，塑料套管在规定的血泵流速下比金属针的压力具有更稳定的动脉和静脉压力。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.