Surgical intervention for upper extremity nerve compression related to arteriovenous hemodialysis accesses.
- 作者列表："Tordoir JH","van Loon MM","Zonnebeld N","Snoeijs M","van Nie F
OBJECTIVE:Chronic renal failure patients with arteriovenous hemodialysis access may exhibit pain and neurological complaints due to local nerve compression by the access conduit vessels of autogenous arteriovenous fistulas or the prosthesis of arteriovenous grafts. In this study, we have examined the results of surgical intervention for vascular access-related nerve compression in the upper extremity. METHODS:A single center retrospective study was performed of all patients referred for persistent pain and neurological complaints after vascular access surgery for hemodialysis. There were four brachial-cephalic, three brachial-basilic upper arm arteriovenous fistulas, and three prosthetic arteriovenous grafts. All patients had pain and sensory deficits in a distinct nerve territory (median nerve: 6; median + ulnar nerve: 1; medial cutaneous nerve: 1), and two patients had additional motor deficits (median nerve). RESULTS:A total of 10 patients (mean age: 59 years; range: 25-73 years; 2 men; 4 diabetics) were treated by surgical nerve release alone (2 patients) or in combination with access revision (8 patients). Mean follow-up was 23 months (range: 8-46 months). Direct complete relief of symptoms was achieved in six patients. Three patients had minor complaints, and one patient had a reoperation with good success. CONCLUSION:Vascular access-related nerve compression is an uncommon cause for pain, sensory and motor deficits after vascular access surgery. Surgical nerve release and access revision have good clinical outcome with relief of symptoms and maintenance of the access site in the majority of patients.
目的: 慢性肾衰竭患者动静脉血液透析通路可能由于自体动静脉瘘通路血管或动静脉移植物假体的局部神经压迫而表现出疼痛和神经系统不适。在这项研究中，我们检查了上肢血管通路相关神经卡压的手术干预结果。 方法: 对所有因血液透析血管通路手术后持续性疼痛和神经系统不适而转诊的患者进行单中心回顾性研究。有4个臂-头，3个臂-贵要上臂动静脉瘘和3个人工动静脉移植物。所有患者在不同的神经区域都有疼痛和感觉缺陷 (正中神经: 6; 正中 + 尺神经: 1; 内侧皮神经: 1)，两名患者有额外的运动缺陷 (正中神经)。 结果: 共有10名患者 (平均年龄: 59岁; 范围: 25-73岁; 2名男性; 4名糖尿病患者) 通过单独手术神经松解术 (2名患者) 或与通路翻修术 (8名患者) 联合治疗。平均随访23个月 (范围: 8-46个月)。在6名患者中实现了症状的直接完全缓解。3例患者有轻微的主诉，1例患者再次手术成功。 结论: 血管通路相关神经卡压是血管通路手术后疼痛、感觉和运动障碍的不常见原因。手术神经松解和入路翻修具有良好的临床结果，在大多数患者中缓解症状并维持入路部位。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.