Quantitative determination of creatinine from serum of prostate cancer patients by N-doped porous carbon antimony (Sb/NPC) nanoparticles.
N掺杂多孔碳锑 (Sb/NPC) 纳米颗粒定量测定前列腺癌患者血清肌酐。
- 作者列表："Jamil M","Fatima B","Hussain D","Chohan TA","Majeed S","Imran M","Khan AA","Manzoor S","Nawaz R","Ashiq MN","Najam-Ul-Haq M
:Creatinine is an indicator of hindrance in urination and renal insufficiency. Creatinine levels are the marker of the late stages of prostate cancer. Early and sensitive detection of creatinine can reduce deaths associated with prostate cancer. In this work, nitrogen-doped porous carbon antimony (Sb/NPC) nanoparticles are fabricated to be employed as a non-enzymatic biosensor. Sb/NPC has promising redox activity and is synthesized by a two-step reaction using low-cost precursors. Electrochemical sensing by Sb/NPC is conducted for standard creatinine solutions on a three-electrodes system. Cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to sense creatinine. LOD and LOQ of the Sb/NPC modified electrode are 0.74 µM and 2.4 µM, respectively. This electrode system analyzes creatinine in the serum of prostate cancer patients who have elevated PSA levels. More than 90% creatinine is recovered from a spiked serum sample of a prostate cancer patient. A direct relation is observed between PSA levels and creatinine levels in prostate cancer. The developed cyclic voltammetric setup detects trace concentrations of creatinine in serum.
: 肌酐是排尿障碍和肾功能不全的指标。肌酐水平是前列腺癌晚期的标志物。肌酐的早期和灵敏检测可以减少与前列腺癌相关的死亡。在这项工作中，氮掺杂的多孔碳锑 (Sb/NPC) 纳米颗粒被制备成用作非酶生物传感器。Sb/NPC具有有希望的氧化还原活性，并且通过使用低成本前体的两步反应合成。在三电极系统上对标准肌酸酐溶液进行Sb/NPC的电化学传感。使用循环伏安法、安培法和电化学阻抗谱来检测肌酸酐。Sb/NPC修饰电极的LOD和LOQ分别为0.74微米和2.4微米。该电极系统分析PSA水平升高的前列腺癌患者血清中的肌酸酐。从前列腺癌患者的加标血清样品中回收超过90% 的肌酸酐。在前列腺癌中观察到PSA水平和肌酸酐水平之间的直接关系。开发的循环伏安设置检测血清中肌酸酐的痕量浓度。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.