Intracavitary electrocardiography-guided positioning of central vascular access device can spare unnecessary ionizing radiation exposure in pediatric patients.
- 作者列表："Raffaele A","Segal A","Romano P","Vatta F","Boghen S","Bonetti F","Parigi GB","Avolio L
BACKGROUND:Most hospital protocols-including those of our own institute-require the use of radiography to validate tip position in every central vascular access device placement. This study evaluated whether unnecessary ionizing radiation exposure could be spared in the pediatric population when intracavitary electrocardiography is used to guide catheter placement. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Retrospective study of intracavitary electrocardiography-guided central vascular access device placements in our pediatric surgery department between 2013 and 2018. We evaluated the operating time, success in positioning the catheter, and accuracy of final tip position. We also assayed the effects of catheter type and of catheter access point on operating time, success, accuracy, and complications. We applied the chi-square test for statistical analysis. RESULTS:In total, 622 interventions of central vascular access device placements were evaluated; 340 intracavitary electrocardiography-guided central vascular access device placements were included in the study. The electrocardiography method successfully positioned the tip of the catheter in 316/340 (92.94%) of placements. Where intracavitary electrocardiography placement was successful, radiography confirmed accuracy of tip position in 314/316 (99.41%) of placements. CONCLUSION:When electrocardiography-guided positioning is uneventful and a valid P-Wave pattern is seen, postprocedure radiograph imaging for verification is unnecessary. Any effort should be made to upgrade hospital policies according to evidences and newest guidelines to spare pediatric patients harmful exposure to radiation by limiting the use of radiography only to selected cases.
背景: 大多数医院协议 -- 包括我们自己研究所的协议 -- 要求在每个中央血管通路装置放置中使用放射摄影术来验证尖端位置。本研究评估了当腔内心电图用于指导导管放置时，儿童人群是否可以避免不必要的电离辐射暴露。 材料和方法: 回顾性研究2013年至2018年间在我们的小儿外科腔内心电图引导下中心血管通路装置的安置。我们评估了操作时间、导管定位的成功率和最终尖端位置的准确性。我们还分析了导管类型和导管接入点对操作时间、成功率、准确性和并发症的影响。我们应用卡方检验进行统计分析。 结果: 共评估了622例中心血管通路装置置入的干预措施; 340例腔内心电图引导的中心血管通路装置置入纳入研究。心电图方法成功地将导管的尖端定位在316/340 (92.94%) 的放置中。如果腔内心电图放置成功，则在314/316 (99.41%) 的放置中，x线片证实了尖端位置的准确性。 结论: 当心电图引导定位顺利，看到有效的P波模式时，不需要进行术后x线成像验证。应根据证据和最新指南努力升级医院政策，通过限制仅在选定病例中使用放射线照相术来避免儿科患者有害暴露于辐射。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.