Immediate aspiration of the drug infused via central venous catheter through the distally positioned central venous dialysis catheter: An experimental study.
- 作者列表："Vicka V","Vickiene A","Tutkus J","Stanaitis J","Bandzeviciute R","Ringaitiene D","Vosylius S","Sipylaite J
OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to construct an experimental model replicating blood flow within human superior vena cava and to determine the degree of the immediate aspiration of the drug introduced via central venous catheter through the distally positioned dialysis catheter. METHODS:A model replicating superior vena cava was built, catheters were inserted into the model, placing the orifice of the central venous catheter in positions regarding the orifice of the arterial lumen in central venous dialysis catheter (from +2 to -8 cm). Methylene blue was used as a tracer, and the concentration was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Four different sets of samples were generated according to infusion and aspiration speeds: continuous-slow, continuous-fast, bolus-slow, and bolus-fast. RESULTS:The concentration of the tracer was related to the distance between the catheter tips, representing a bimodal dependence. When the central venous catheter was placed distally to the central venous dialysis catheter, the aspiration of the tracer was minimal. When withdrawing the central venous catheter proximally, the aspiration of the tracer increased, reaching its peak at -4 cm with aspiration rates form 4.2% to 140.7%. Furthermore, the infusion speed of the tracer had more effect on the aspirated concentrations than the aspiration speed. CONCLUSION:Findings of our experimental model suggest that concentration of aspired drug is effected by the distance between the central venous catheter and central venous dialysis catheter, being lowest when the drug is infused distally to central venous dialysis catheter. Furthermore, the concentration of the tracer is directly proportional to the infusion speed and far less effected by the aspiration rate of the drug.
目的: 本研究的目的是构建一个复制人上腔静脉内血流的实验模型，并确定通过中心静脉导管通过远端定位的透析导管引入的药物的立即吸入程度。 方法: 建立复制上腔静脉的模型，将导管插入模型中，将中心静脉导管的开口放置在中心静脉透析导管中动脉管腔开口的位置 (从 + 2到-8厘米)。以亚甲基蓝为示踪剂，用紫外-可见分光光度法测定其浓度。根据输注和抽吸速度产生四组不同的样品: 连续-慢、连续-快、推注-慢和推注-快。 结果: 示踪剂的浓度与导管尖端之间的距离相关，代表双峰依赖性。当中心静脉导管放置在中心静脉透析导管的远端时，示踪剂的抽吸最小。当向近侧撤回中心静脉导管时，示踪剂的抽吸增加，在-4厘米处达到其峰值，抽吸率为4.2% 至140.7%。此外，示踪剂的输注速度比抽吸速度对抽吸浓度的影响更大。 结论: 我们的实验模型结果表明，所需药物的浓度受中心静脉导管与中心静脉透析导管之间距离的影响，当药物向中心静脉透析导管远端输注时最低。此外，示踪剂的浓度与输注速度成正比，并且受药物的抽吸速率的影响要小得多。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.