- 作者列表："Florescu MC","Plumb TJ","Westphal S","Mullane R","Reilly DA
BACKGROUND:Oftentimes, obese dialysis patients develop a viable dialysis access but the access is too deep for cannulation and needs a superficialization procedure. METHODS:We present our 14-patient cohort in whom we performed liposuction to superficialize viable but deep vascular accesses. Out of 14 patients, 12 had arteriovenous fistulas and 2 arteriovenous grafts. The primary end points were the ability to superficialize a completely unusable access and to remove the hemodialysis catheter (3patients), or to significantly extend the useful length of a deep access in which only a very short segment was used and to continue to use the access post-surgery without the need to place a dialysis catheter (11 patients). RESULTS:The study goal was met in 13 out of 14 patients. In two of three patients, the catheters were removed and their access usable length was 14 and 13 cm, respectively. The accesses could be used immediately after liposuction in all patients in which this applied-11 patients. The usable access length increased from a mean of 5 to 12.7 cm. The access mean depth decreased from 10.8 mm pre-surgery to 7 mm post-surgery and 5.3 mm 4 weeks after surgery. The mean volume of fat removed was 43.8 cc. We had only one surgical complication: bleeding that was readily controlled with manual pressure. All patients were discharged to home the same day. Postoperative pain was mild. CONCLUSION:Liposuction is effective, safe, and seems to be the least invasive technique of superficialization.
背景: 肥胖透析患者通常会形成可行的透析通路，但该通路对于插管来说太深，需要一个肤浅的程序。 方法: 我们介绍了我们的14名患者队列，我们在其中进行了脂肪抽吸术，以使可行但深层的血管通路变浅。在14例患者中，12例有动静脉瘘和2例动静脉移植物。主要终点是能够使一个完全不能使用的通路变浅和移除血液透析导管 (3名患者)，或显著延长只使用非常短的节段的深层通路的有用长度，并在手术后继续使用通路，而无需放置透析导管11例患者)。 结果: 14例患者中有13例达到了研究目标。在3名患者中的2名患者中，移除了导管，并且它们的通路可用长度分别为14和13 cm。在所有应用该方法的患者中，吸脂后可立即使用该方法。可用通路长度从平均5厘米增加到12.7厘米。通路平均深度从术前的10.8mm降至术后的7mm和术后4周的5.3mm。去除的脂肪的平均体积为43.8 cc cc。我们只有一个手术并发症: 用手动压力容易控制的出血。所有患者于当天出院回家。术后疼痛较轻。 结论: 脂肪抽吸术是一种有效、安全的微创化技术。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.