Acupuncture in Dermatology: An Update to a Systematic Review.
- 作者列表："Hwang J","Lio PA
: Objectives: Acupuncture is an important Traditional Chinese Medicine modality based on the fundamental theory that disease is caused by disruptions in the body's qi. Understanding the use of acupuncture in dermatology is important due to the rising prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use. A systematic review published in 2015 found that acupuncture improves outcomes in several dermatological diseases. We performed a systematic review of studies that have been done since then to present updated evidence. Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register was performed. Studies were limited to clinical trials, controlled studies, case reports, comparative studies, and systematic reviews published in the English language. Studies involving moxibustion, electroacupuncture, or blood-letting were excluded. Results: Results showed that acupuncture improves clinical outcomes in uremic pruritus, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, and itch. Acupuncture does not significantly reduce postoperative itch in patients undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Conclusions: While there are some promising studies that support the use of acupuncture for skin diseases, additional large-scale, randomized, sham-controlled trials need to be performed to present consistent high-level evidence of acupuncture's role in dermatology.
: 目标: 针灸是一种重要的中医模式，其基础理论是疾病是由身体的气机紊乱引起的。由于补充和替代药物使用的日益普遍，了解针灸在皮肤科中的使用非常重要。2015年发表的一项系统综述发现，针灸可以改善几种皮肤病的疗效。我们对自那时以来已经完成的研究进行了系统回顾，以提供更新的证据。 方法: 对MEDLINE、EMBASE和Cochrane中心注册进行了系统搜索。研究仅限于用英语发表的临床试验、对照研究、病例报告、比较研究和系统综述。排除涉及艾灸、电针或放血的研究。 结果: 结果表明，针灸改善尿毒症皮肤瘙痒，特应性皮炎，荨麻疹和瘙痒的临床结果。针刺对腰麻下剖宫产术患者术后瘙痒无明显减轻作用。 结论: 虽然有一些有希望的研究支持使用针灸治疗皮肤病，但需要进行额外的大规模，随机，假对照试验，以提供针灸在皮肤病学中的作用的一致的高水平证据。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.