- 作者列表："Avendano EE","Raman G
: Objective: Strenuous muscular workouts can increase markers of inflammation that can potentially damage components of skeletal muscles. Blueberries contain a variety of nutrients and phytochemicals that have individually been related to reduction in oxidative stress and inflammation. The objective was to conduct a systematic overview using evidence mapping to identify research-dense and evidence gap areas that examine the impact of blueberry consumption on exercise performance and inflammatory markers in adults. Design: The authors searched Medline, Cochrane Central, and Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau for literature published between 1946 and September 2019. Abstracts and full-text publications were screened in duplicate for studies that evaluated outcomes related to metabolism, lipoprotein, muscle damage, markers of oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, or gait after participants consumed blueberries and were subjected to some form of exercise. Results: The authors found nine randomized controlled trials, one single-arm study, and one observational study that met the eligibility criteria. Inflammatory markers, F2-isoprostanes, and gait speed were the most frequently reported outcomes, with each one reported by at least three studies. Outcomes related to metabolism, lipoproteins, muscle damage, and most markers of oxidative stress and most gait-related outcomes were each reported by one study. Intervention trials were generally conducted with a small number of participants and the majority included mostly younger individuals. Using multivariate analysis, the sole observational study examined physical ability among participants who consumed higher doses of blueberries compared with participants who consumed a half cup of blueberries less than once a month. Conclusions: Evidence mapping found that further research in both randomized controlled trials and cohort studies examining the impact of blueberry consumption on exercise performance and inflammatory markers is needed to establish an association.
: 目的: 剧烈的肌肉锻炼可以增加可能损害骨骼肌成分的炎症标志物。蓝莓含有多种营养素和植物化学物质，这些营养素和植物化学物质与氧化应激和炎症的减少有关。目的是使用证据映射进行系统概述，以确定研究密集和证据空白区域，检查蓝莓消费对成人运动表现和炎症标志物的影响。 设计: 作者检索了Medline、Cochrane Central和英联邦农业局在1946年至2019年9月期间发表的文献。摘要和全文出版物以一式两份的形式筛选了评估参与者食用蓝莓并进行某种形式的运动后与代谢、脂蛋白、肌肉损伤、氧化应激标志物、炎症标志物或步态相关的研究。 结果: 作者发现了九个随机对照试验，一个单臂研究，和一个观察性研究符合资格标准。炎症标志物、F2-isoprostanes和步态速度是最常报告的结局，至少有3项研究报告了每一项.一项研究报告了与代谢、脂蛋白、肌肉损伤、大多数氧化应激标志物和大多数步态相关结局相关的结局。干预试验一般在少数参与者中进行，大多数包括较年轻的个体。使用多变量分析，唯一的观察性研究检查了与每月少于一次食用半杯蓝莓的参与者相比，食用较高剂量蓝莓的参与者的身体能力。 结论: 证据映射发现，需要在随机对照试验和队列研究中进一步研究蓝莓消费对运动表现和炎症标志物的影响，以建立关联。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.