An Approach to Screen Genotoxic-Susceptible Diabetic Population of Various Prakriti Groups for Personalized Disease Management.
- 作者列表："Banerjee S","Biswas TK","Chattopadhyay K","Arzoo SH","Chattopadhyay B
: Background: Ayurveda classifies human populations into three predominant groups as Vata, Pitta, and Kapha based on their "Prakriti'. Any disturbance in the equilibrium of Prakriti can cause various diseases. Objectives: The aim of the study was to link genotoxic variation among the three Prakriti having type 2 diabetes. Design: Type 2 diabetic patients and healthy individuals belonging to three predominant Prakriti were selected through the Prakriti Questionnaire screening as per the guidelines of the CSIR-TRISUTRA unit modified for type 2 diabetes disease. Settings/Location: Sixty individuals from three predominant Prakriti, each consisting of 10 diabetic patients and 10 healthy individuals, were chosen. Subjects: Clinically diagnosed outdoor patients of JBRMCH suffering from type 2 diabetes for 5 years (fasting blood glucose >140 mg/dL; HbA1C > 7.0) and healthy individuals were the subjects for study. Inclusion Criteria: Age limit: 30-70 years, Sex: Both, Habitant: Participants residing in West Bengal for the last five generations, Religion: Unspecified, Social entity: Both urban and rural, Education: High school to college, Economic status: Lower middle to middle classes. Exclusion Criteria: Participants were nonsmokers and nonalcoholics. An individual having a medical history of long-term illness or dwandaja Prakriti type was excluded here. Outcome Measures: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, blood DNA content, DNA damage, apoptosis of blood cells, and interaction of DNA with various carcinogens were observed. Results: The yield of ROS and total cell damage were significantly higher in the diabetic Vata (p < 0.001) group compared with other Prakriti Decreased DNA content and increased DNA damage were observed in type 2 diabetic patients who belonged to Vata (p < 0.01) Prakriti. DNA of Vata Prakriti was more prone to lead and arsenic. Conclusions: The diabetic Vata Prakriti is a genetically susceptible group as it has a tendency to get affected by increased DNA damage, which could help in creating personalized management of diabetes among individual Prakriti.
: 背景: 阿育吠陀根据其 “prakriti” 将人类群体分为三个主要群体，即Vata、Pitta和Kapha。Prakriti平衡中的任何干扰都可能导致各种疾病。 目标: 该研究的目的是将三种2型糖尿病患者的遗传毒性变异联系起来。 设计: 根据CSIR-TRISUTRA单元针对2型糖尿病疾病修改的指南，通过Prakriti问卷筛选选择属于三种主要Prakriti的2型糖尿病患者和健康个体。 设置/位置: 从三个主要的Prakriti中选择60个个体，每个个体由10个糖尿病患者和10个健康个体组成。 主题: 临床诊断为JBRMCH患有2型糖尿病5年 (空腹血糖> 140 mg/dL; HbA1C > 7.0) 的户外患者和健康者为研究对象。 入选标准: 年龄限制: 30-70岁，性别: 两者都有，居住者: 最近五代居住在西孟加拉邦的参与者，宗教: 未指明，社会实体: 城市和农村，教育: 高中到大学，经济状况: 中下到中产阶级。 排除标准: 参与者为非吸烟者和非酗酒者。此处排除具有长期疾病病史或dwandaja Prakriti型的个体。 结果测量: 观察活性氧 (ROS) 产生、血液DNA含量、DNA损伤、血细胞凋亡以及DNA与各种致癌物的相互作用。 结果: 糖尿病Vata (p <0.001) 组的ROS产量和总细胞损伤显著高于其他Prakriti，在属于Vata (p <0.01) 的2型糖尿病患者中观察到DNA含量降低和DNA损伤增加。Vata Prakriti的DNA更容易出现铅和砷。 结论: 糖尿病患者Vata Prakriti是一个遗传易感群体，因为它有受到DNA损伤增加影响的趋势，这可能有助于在个体Prakriti中创建糖尿病的个性化管理。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.