Mindfulness and Acceptance Interventions for Parents of Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with Chronic Medical Conditions: A Systematic Review.
- 作者列表："Ruskin D","Young M","Sugar C","Nofech-Mozes J
: Background: Mindfulness and acceptance interventions (MAIs) have been identified as potentially beneficial for parents of children and adolescents diagnosed with chronic medical conditions. Objective: The objective of this review was to provide a descriptive summary of the existing literature on MAIs delivered to parents of children and adolescents diagnosed with chronic medical conditions. Data sources: Electronic searches were conducted by a Library Information Specialist familiar with the field by using EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBM Reviews Databases, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Study eligibility, participants, and interventions: Peer-reviewed journal articles of MAIs delivered to parents of children and adolescents (birth to 18 years of age) diagnosed with a chronic medical condition were eligible for inclusion. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: A total of 18 studies involving 793 parents met inclusion criteria and thus were included in this review. The majority of studies were either pre/post design (n = 8) or randomized controlled trials (n = 6). Most interventions were delivered within a group (n = 6) or individually (n = 5). Nearly all studies (n = 14) reported statistically significant outcomes following the MAI intervention. Conclusions and implications of key findings: Descriptive information yielded from this review provides promising evidence that MAIs are being delivered to parents across the world and many researchers are using similar outcome measures when assessing the psychological flexibility, acceptance, and mindfulness skills following participation in MAIs among this population of parents.
: 背景: 正念和接受干预 (MAIs) 已被确定为对被诊断患有慢性疾病的儿童和青少年的父母可能有益。 目的: 本综述的目的是提供现有文献的描述性总结，这些文献涉及被诊断为患有慢性病的儿童和青少年的父母。 数据源: 电子检索由熟悉该领域的图书馆信息专家使用EMBASE，MEDLINE，PsycINFO，EBM评论数据库和Cochrane系统评价数据库进行。 研究资格、参与者和干预措施: 向被诊断患有慢性疾病的儿童和青少年 (出生至18岁) 的父母提供的MAIs的同行评审期刊文章符合纳入条件。 研究评价与合成方法: 共有18项研究，包括793名父母，符合纳入标准，因此纳入本综述。大多数研究是前/后设计 (n = 8) 或随机对照试验 (n = 6)。大多数干预是在一组 (n = 6) 或单独 (n = 5) 内进行的。几乎所有研究 (n = 14) 都报告了MAI干预后的统计学显著结局。 主要调查结果的结论和影响: 从这篇综述中获得的描述性信息提供了有希望的证据，表明MAIs正在交付给世界各地的父母，许多研究人员在评估这些父母群体参与MAIs后的心理灵活性，接受度和正念技能时使用了类似的结果测量。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.