- 作者列表："Amaral TG","Zina LG","Paula JS
: Objectives: The objective of this research was to systematically map the literature on homeopathy and dentistry studies and to evaluate the effectiveness of using homeopathy in dental practice through the critical analysis of clinical studies. Design: The search for scientific articles in any language, year, and place of publication was made in the databases of Public Medline (PUBMED), Web of Science, Cochrane, and Virtual Health Library; the articles selected were later classified according to the type of study. Gray literature was accessed through Google Scholar. Clinical trials were analyzed for methodological quality. Two previously trained reviewers accomplished the entire process independently. Results: Of the 281 studies retrieved by means of the search, 44 met the eligibility criteria, with prevalence of literature reviews (56.8%), followed by clinical trials (34.1%), cross-sectional studies (6.8%), laboratory research (6.8%), and longitudinal observational studies (4.5%). The clinical trials identified were published from 1965 to 2019, using homeopathy in several dental specialties: in Endodontics, Periodontics, Orofacial Pain, Surgery, Pediatric Dentistry, and Stomatology, as well as in cases of dental anxiety. Qualitative failures, in all criteria investigated, and positive influences of the individual prescriptions on the results of treatments reported were observed. Conclusions: There is still a scarcity of studies about homeopathy and dentistry. The clinical trials selected showed positive effects on oral health; however, when they were critically evaluated, it was possible to recognize qualitative failures, mainly relative to double-blinding. It is necessary to encourage research on the subject, using standardized methodological procedures, to obtain better evaluation of the clinical applicability.
: 目标: 这项研究的目的是系统地绘制关于顺势疗法和牙科研究的文献，并通过临床研究的批判性分析来评估在牙科实践中使用顺势疗法的有效性。 设计: 在公共Medline (PUBMED) 、Web of Science、Cochrane和虚拟健康图书馆数据库中搜索任何语言、年份和发表地点的科学文章; 随后根据研究类型对所选文章进行分类.灰色文献是通过Google Scholar访问的。分析临床试验的方法学质量。两名之前接受过培训的审核者独立完成了整个过程。 结果: 在通过检索检索到的281项研究中，44项符合纳入标准，文献综述 (56.8%) 普遍，其次是临床试验 (34.1%) 、横断面研究 (6.8%) 、实验室研究 (6.8%) 和纵向观察性研究 (4.5%)。确定的临床试验发表于1965年至2019年，在几个牙科专业中使用顺势疗法: 牙髓病学，牙周病学，口腔面部疼痛，外科，儿童牙科和口腔科，以及牙科焦虑。在所研究的所有标准中，观察到定性失败，以及个体处方对所报告的治疗结果的积极影响。 结论: 关于顺势疗法和牙科的研究仍然很少。选择的临床试验显示对口腔健康的积极影响; 然而，当对它们进行批判性评估时，可以识别定性失败，主要是相对于双盲。有必要鼓励对该主题的研究，使用标准化的方法学程序，以获得更好的临床适用性评价。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.