Effects of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) on Menopausal Symptoms in Premenopausal Women After Gynecologic Cancer Surgery: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.
韩国红参的作用 (人参C.A.Meyer) 对绝经前妇女妇科肿瘤术后更年期症状的影响: 一项双盲、随机对照试验。
- 作者列表："Chung YS","Lee IO","Lee JY","Nam EJ","Kim SW","Kim YT","Kim S
: Objectives: Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been widely used as an alternative medicine to relieve menopausal symptoms. However, there is still a lack of clinical studies showing the effects of KRG on menopausal symptoms after gynecologic cancer surgery. Therefore, the authors investigated the effects of KRG on surgical menopause symptoms in premenopausal women with gynecologic cancer. Design: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. Settings/Location: The study was performed at Severance Hospital at the Yonsei University College of Medicine in Seoul, Korea. Subjects: Fifty-five premenopausal women diagnosed with gynecologic cancer were enrolled in the study. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to a KRG (n = 29) or a placebo control group (n = 26). Subjects were administered either KRG (a total of 3 g per day) or placebo supplements for 12 weeks. Outcome measures: Patients' physical measurements (height, weight, and blood pressure) and blood samples (lipid profiles, hormone profiles, biochemical profiles, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) at baseline and at 12 weeks were compared. Changes in menopausal symptoms based on the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) were also compared between these two time points and two groups. Results: After 12 weeks, the MRS score was significantly reduced in each group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively), but there were no significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.661). No adverse events were observed in either group. After comparing 11 MRS symptoms between the two groups, the KRG group seemed to be superior to the placebo group on the subscale of sexual complaints (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Through the study, KRG did not show absolute relief of surgical menopause symptoms in premenopausal women after gynecologic cancer surgery. However, the study did demonstrate that KRG may be effective in reducing sexual complaints. Further studies are required to evaluate the long-term effects of KRG in a larger patient population.
: 目标: 韩国红参 (KRG) 已被广泛用作缓解更年期症状的替代药物。然而，仍缺乏临床研究显示KRG对妇科癌症术后更年期症状的影响。因此，作者研究了KRG对绝经前妇科肿瘤妇女手术绝经症状的影响。 设计: 进行双盲、随机、安慰剂对照临床试验。 设置/位置: 该研究在韩国首尔延世大学医学院的Severance医院进行。 主题: 55名被诊断患有妇科癌症的绝经前妇女参加了这项研究。 干预措施: 患者被随机分配到KRG组 (n = 29) 或安慰剂对照组 (n = 26)。受试者施用KRG (每天总共3 μ g) 或安慰剂补充剂12周。 结果测量: 比较基线和12周时患者的身体测量 (身高，体重和血压) 和血液样本 (血脂谱，激素谱，生化谱和中性粒细胞与淋巴细胞的比率)。根据绝经评定量表 (MRS) 对两组患者的绝经症状变化进行比较。 结果: 12周后，各组MRS评分均显著降低 (p = 0.001，p = 0.001)，但两组间差异无统计学意义 (p = 0.661)。两组均未观察到不良事件。在比较两组之间的11个MRS症状后，KRG组在性抱怨的分量表上似乎优于安慰剂组 (p <0.05)。 结论: 通过研究，KRG没有显示出妇科癌症手术后绝经前妇女手术绝经症状的绝对缓解。然而，这项研究确实证明了KRG可能有效减少性抱怨。需要进一步的研究来评估KRG在更大的患者群体中的长期作用。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.