Effect of Equine-Assisted Activities on Cardiac Autonomic Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Randomized-Controlled Trial.
- 作者列表："Park IK","Lee JY","Suk MH","Yoo S","Seo YG","Oh JK","Kwon JY
: Objective: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have an impaired cardiac autonomic function. Attenuated heart rate recovery (HRR), which is a valuable prognostic parameter for autonomic nervous system, is known to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. However, only few studies have observed the effects of exercise on the cardiac autonomic function in children with CP. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of equine-assisted activity (EAA) program on cardiac autonomic function in children with CP. Design: A single-blinded, parallel, two-arm pilot trial with 1:1 randomization to the EAA or control group. Setting: A tertiary university hospital and a local arena. Subjects: Twenty-six children with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels I-II). Intervention: Each lesson of the EAA program for the EAA group was conducted for 40 min twice a week, and the whole program duration was 16 weeks (a total of 32 sessions). Outcome measures: A graded exercise test was performed to measure the resting heart rate (RHR), HRR, and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) on both groups before and after the 16-week period. Results: The autonomic nervous function measured by the response of HRR improved at 1 min (p < 0.009), 3 min (p < 0.001), and 5 min (p < 0.004) only in the EAA group. RHR significantly improved in the EAA group (p < 0.013), whereas the VO2peak did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusion: The HRR and RHR of the children with CP improved after completing the 16-week EAA program. The results demonstrated that the program had a positive effect on the improvement of cardiac autonomic function in these patients. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT03870893.
: 目的: 脑瘫 (CP) 患儿心脏自主神经功能受损。心率恢复减弱 (HRR) 是自主神经系统的一个有价值的预后参数，已知其与心血管事件和全因死亡率的风险增加相关。然而，只有很少的研究观察到运动对CP儿童心脏自主神经功能的影响。这项初步研究的目的是检查马辅助活动 (EAA) 计划对CP儿童心脏自主神经功能的影响。 设计: 一项1:1随机分配至EAA或对照组的单盲、平行、双臂试验. 设置: 三级大学医院和当地竞技场。 主题: 26例CP患儿 (粗大运动功能分级系统 ⅰ-ⅱ 级)。 干预: EAA组EAA项目的每节课每周进行两次，每次40 min，整个项目持续时间为16周 (共32次)。 结果测量: 进行分级运动试验，测量16周前后两组的静息心率 (RHR) 、HRR和峰值摄氧量 (VO2peak)。 结果: 通过HRR反应测量的自主神经功能仅在EAA组在1 min (p <0.009) 、3 min (p <0.001) 和5 min (p <0.004) 时改善。RHR在EAA组中显著改善 (p <0.013)，而VO2peak在两组之间没有显著差异。 结论: 在完成16周EAA项目后，患有CP的儿童的HRR和RHR有所改善。结果表明，该方案对改善这些患者的心脏自主神经功能具有积极作用。临床试验注册号: nct03870893。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.