Optimal Terminology for Services in the United States That Incorporate Horses to Benefit People: A Consensus Document.
- 作者列表："Wood W","Alm K","Benjamin J","Thomas L","Anderson D","Pohl L","Kane M
: Objectives: To recommend (1) the adoption of optimal terminology for referring to services in the United States that incorporate horses and other equines to benefit people, and (2) the discontinuation of especially problematic terminology. Design: A diverse multidisciplinary consortium of individuals, including representatives of relevant national organizations, participated in an inclusive, systematic, and comprehensive 2-year consensus-building process. Results: Twelve specific types of services were identified that relate to one of three broad areas of professional work: therapy, learning, or horsemanship. Related to the area of therapy, five distinct types of therapies were identified: counseling, occupational therapy, physical therapy, psychotherapy, and speech-language pathology. Therapy-first language is recommended that foregrounds the exact therapy (e.g., physical therapy) and adds precise equine-related descriptors as warranted (e.g., physical therapy using equine movement). Related to the area of learning, three distinct types of nontherapy services were identified. The recommended terminology for referring to these services is equine-assisted learning in education, equine-assisted learning in organizations, and equine-assisted learning in personal development. Related to the area of horsemanship, four distinct types of nontherapy services were identified. The recommended terminology for referring to these services is adaptive equestrian sports, adaptive riding or therapeutic riding, driving, and interactive vaulting. The plural term, equine-assisted services, is recommended as a concise shorthand for easily referencing multiple services that differ from each other, yet share the horse as a common thread. Terms recommended for discontinuation include equine therapy, equine-assisted activities and therapies, equine-assisted therapy, equestrian therapy, hippotherapist, hippotherapy clinic (program), horse therapy, horseback riding therapy, and therapy riding. The consensus-building process culminated in extensive but not unanimous endorsements of all terminology recommendations. Conclusions: Terminology recommended for adoption clearly describes and distinguishes 12 distinct types of services. Terminology recommended for discontinuation was found to be ambiguous, misleading, no longer useful, or to have adversely affected stakeholders. It is hoped that all recommendations will prove useful and serve to enhance the professionalism and viability of specific identified services. It is also hoped that improved precision and clarity in terminology for naming specific services will advance their future scientific development and reliable measurement of effectiveness. Not all terminology-related challenges were resolved, however, and new challenges will likely arise as services continue to evolve and diversify. Significant impacts, if any, of the terminology recommendations herein merit ongoing monitoring and the question of optimal terminology merits revisiting in the foreseeable future.
: 目标: 建议 (1) 采用最佳术语来指代美国的服务，这些服务包括马和其他马，以使人们受益，以及 (2) 停止使用特别有问题的术语。 设计: 包括相关国家组织代表在内的各种多学科个人联盟参与了一个包容、系统和全面的两年共识建立进程。 结果: 确定了十二种特定类型的服务，涉及三个广泛的专业工作领域之一: 治疗，学习或马术。与治疗领域相关，确定了五种不同类型的治疗: 咨询，职业治疗，物理治疗，心理治疗和语言病理学。治疗-建议第一语言预先确定确切的治疗 (例如，物理治疗)，并根据需要添加精确的马相关描述符 (例如，使用马运动的物理治疗)。与学习领域相关，确定了三种不同类型的非治疗服务。参考这些服务的推荐术语是教育中的马辅助学习、组织中的马辅助学习和个人发展中的马辅助学习。与马术领域相关，确定了四种不同类型的非治疗服务。参考这些服务的推荐术语是适应性马术运动、适应性骑马或治疗性骑马、驾驶和交互式跳马。复数术语 “马辅助服务” 被推荐为简明的简写，用于轻松引用彼此不同的多个服务，但将马作为共同的线索共享。建议停药的术语包括马疗法、马辅助活动和疗法、马辅助疗法、马术疗法、希波治疗师、希波疗法诊所 (程序) 、马疗法、骑马疗法和骑马疗法。建立共识的进程最终导致对所有术语建议的广泛但不一致的认可。 结论: 建议采用的术语清楚地描述和区分了12种不同类型的服务。建议终止的术语被发现含糊不清、误导人、不再有用或对利益攸关方产生不利影响。希望所有建议都将证明是有用的，并有助于提高特定服务的专业性和可行性。还希望提高具体服务命名术语的准确性和清晰度将促进其未来的科学发展和可靠的有效性衡量。然而，并非所有与术语有关的挑战都得到解决，随着服务的不断发展和多样化，可能会出现新的挑战。本文术语建议的重大影响 (如果有的话) 值得持续监测，最佳术语问题值得在可预见的未来重新审视。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.