FBXO11-mediated proteolysis of BAHD1 relieves PRC2-dependent transcriptional repression in erythropoiesis.
- 作者列表："Xu P","Scott DC","Xu B","Yao Y","Feng R","Cheng L","Mayberry K","Wang YD","Bi W","Palmer LE","King MT","Wang H","Li Y","Fan Y","Alpi AF","Li C","Peng J","Papizan J","Pruett-Miller SM","Spallek R","Bassermann F","Cheng Y","Schulman BA","Weiss MJ
:The histone mark H3K27me3 and its reader/writer polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) mediate widespread transcriptional repression in stem and progenitor cells. Mechanisms that regulate this activity are critical for hematopoietic development but are poorly understood. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase F-box only protein 11 (FBXO11) relieves PRC2-mediated repression during erythroid maturation by targeting its newly identified substrate bromo adjacent homology domain-containing 1 (BAHD1), an H3K27me3 reader that recruits transcriptional corepressors. Erythroblasts lacking FBXO11 are developmentally delayed, with reduced expression of maturation-associated genes, most of which harbor bivalent histone marks at their promoters. In FBXO11-/- erythroblasts, these gene promoters bind BAHD1 and fail to recruit the erythroid transcription factor GATA1. The BAHD1 complex interacts physically with PRC2, and depletion of either component restores FBXO11-deficient erythroid gene expression. Our studies identify BAHD1 as a novel effector of PRC2-mediated repression and reveal how a single E3 ubiquitin ligase eliminates PRC2 repression at many developmentally poised bivalent genes during erythropoiesis.
: 组蛋白标记H3K27me3及其读写器polycomb抑制复合物2 (PRC2) 介导干细胞和祖细胞中广泛的转录抑制。调节这种活性的机制对造血发育至关重要，但了解甚少。在这里，我们展示了E3泛素连接酶F-box only蛋白11 (FBXO11) 通过靶向其新鉴定的底物溴相邻同源结构域1 (BAHD1)，一种招募转录辅助抑制因子的H3K27me3阅读器，缓解了红系成熟过程中的PRC2-mediated抑制。缺乏FBXO11的成红细胞是发育延迟的，成熟相关基因的表达减少，其中大部分在其启动子处具有二价组蛋白标记。在FBXO11-/-成红细胞体中，这些基因启动子结合BAHD1而不能募集红系转录因子gata1。BAHD1复合物与PRC2物理相互作用，任一组分的耗尽恢复FBXO11-deficient红系基因表达。我们的研究确定BAHD1是PRC2-mediated抑制的新效应物，并揭示了单个E3泛素连接酶如何在红细胞生成过程中消除许多发育平衡二价基因的PRC2抑制。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.