Glucosamine and Chondroitin Use in Relation to C-Reactive Protein Concentration: Results by Supplement Form, Formulation, and Dose.
- 作者列表："Kantor ED","O'Connell K","Du M","Cao C","Zhang X","Lee DH","Cao Y","Giovannucci EL
: Objectives: Glucosamine and chondroitin supplements have been associated with reduced inflammation, as measured by C-reactive protein (CRP). It is unclear if associations vary by formulation (glucosamine alone vs. glucosamine+chondroitin), form (glucosamine hydrochloride vs. glucosamine sulfate), or dose. Design, Subjects, Setting, Location: The authors evaluated these questions using cross-sectional data collected between 1999 and 2010 on 21,917 US adults, surveyed as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Exposures: Glucosamine and chondroitin use was assessed during an in-home interview; exposures include supplement formulation, form, and dose. Outcome/Analysis: CRP was measured using blood collected at interview. Survey-weighted linear regression was used to evaluate the multivariable-adjusted association between exposures and log-transformed CRP. Results: In early years (1999-2004), use of glucosamine (ratio = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79-0.96) and chondroitin (ratio = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.72-0.95) was associated with reduced CRP. However, associations significantly varied by calendar time (p-interaction = 0.04 and p-interaction = 0.01, respectively), with associations nonsignificant in later years (ratio = 1.09; 95% CI = 0.94-1.28 and ratio = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.99-1.35, respectively). Consequently, all analyses have been stratified by calendar time. Associations did not significantly differ by formulation in either set of years; however, significant associations were observed for combined use of glucosamine+chondroitin (ratioearly = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.72-0.95; ratiolate = 1.16; 1.00-1.35), but not glucosamine alone. Associations also did not significantly differ by supplement form. Even so, a significant inverse association was observed only for glucosamine sulfate in the early years (ratio = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64-0.95); no significant association was observed for glucosamine hydrochloride. No significant trends were observed by dose. Conclusions: Although a significant inverse association was observed for glucosamine and chondroitin and CRP in early years, this association did not hold in later years. This pattern held for combined use of glucosamine+chondroitin as well as glucosamine sulfate, although associations did not significantly vary by supplement form, formulation, or dose. Further study is needed to better understand these associations in the context of calendar time.
: 目标: 通过C-反应蛋白 (CRP) 测量，葡萄糖胺和软骨素补充剂与减少的炎症有关。不清楚关联是否因制剂 (单独的葡糖胺与葡糖胺 + 软骨素) 、形式 (葡糖胺盐酸盐与葡糖胺硫酸盐) 或剂量而异。 设计，主题，设置，位置: 作者使用1999年至2010年间收集的21,917名美国成年人的横断面数据评估了这些问题，这些数据是作为国家健康和营养调查 (NHANES) 的一部分进行调查的。 曝光: 在家庭访谈期间评估葡萄糖胺和软骨素的使用; 暴露包括补充制剂，形式和剂量。 结果/分析: 使用访谈时收集的血液测量CRP。使用调查加权线性回归来评估暴露和对数转换的CRP之间的多变量调整的关联。 结果: 在早期 (1999-2004)，使用氨基葡萄糖 (比率 = 0.87; 95% 置信区间 [CI] = 0.79-0.96) 和软骨素 (比率 = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.72-0.95) 与CRP降低相关。然而，关联随日历时间显著变化 (p相互作用 = 0.04，p相互作用respectively = 0.01)，关联在晚年不显著 (比率 = 1.09; 95% ci = 0.94-1.28，比率 = 1.16; 95% ci = 0.99-1.35，分别)。因此，所有分析均按日历时间分层。在两组年份中，制剂之间的相关性没有显著差异; 然而，在氨基葡萄糖 + 软骨素的联合使用中观察到显著的相关性 (比率ear= 0.82; 95% ci = 0.72-0.95; 比率 = 1.16; 1.00-1.35)，但不是单独的氨基葡萄糖。不同补充形式的协会也没有显著差异。即便如此，早期仅对硫酸氨基葡萄糖观察到显著的逆关联 (比率 = 0.78; 95% ci = 0.64-0.95); 对盐酸氨基葡萄糖没有观察到显著关联。未观察到剂量的显著趋势。 结论: 虽然在早期观察到葡糖胺和软骨素和CRP的显著逆关联，但这种关联在以后的几年中不成立。这种模式适用于葡糖胺 + 软骨素以及葡糖胺硫酸盐的组合使用，尽管相关性在补充剂形式、制剂或剂量方面没有显著变化。需要进一步研究以更好地理解日历时间背景下的这些关联。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.