- 作者列表："Hu S","Han R","Chen L","Qin W","Xu X","Shi J","Zhu X","Zhang M","Zeng C","Tang Z","Bao H","Liu Z
:Podocyte injury is a common hallmark in various glomerular diseases. The level of LRRC55 was increased in podocytes of patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), diabetic nephropathy (DN), and membranous nephropathy (MN). Upregulated LRRC55 and increased intracellular Ca2+ led to BK channel activation and the loss of intracellular potassium, resulting in apoptosome formation and caspase-3 activation in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated podocytes. Knockout of Lrrc55 or the BK channel prevented the BK current and ameliorated podocyte injury in Ang II-treated mice. Upstream, NFATc3 regulated the expression of LRRC55. Increased LRRC55 expression in podocytes was also evident in animal models of FSGS, DN, and MN. Treatment with losartan or LRRC55 siRNA suppressed LRRC55 expression, prevented BK channel activation, and attenuated podocyte injury in animal models of FSGS, DN, and MN. In conclusion, upregulated LRRC55 promotes BK channel activation and aggravates cell injury in podocytes in FSGS, DN, and MN. LRRC55 inhibition may represent a new therapeutic approach for podocyte injury.
: 足细胞损伤是多种肾小球疾病的共同标志。局灶节段性肾小球硬化 (FSGS) 、糖尿病肾病 (DN) 和膜性肾病 (MN) 患者足细胞LRRC55水平升高。上调LRRC55和增加细胞内Ca2 + 导致BK通道激活和细胞内钾损失，导致血管紧张素II (Ang II) 处理的足细胞中凋亡体形成和caspase-3激活。敲除Lrrc55或BK通道可预防BK电流并改善Ang II治疗小鼠的足细胞损伤。上游，NFATc3调控lrrc55的表达。足细胞中LRRC55表达增加在FSGS、DN和MN的动物模型中也很明显。在FSGS、DN和MN动物模型中，氯沙坦或LRRC55 siRNA治疗抑制LRRC55表达，阻止BK通道激活，并减轻足细胞损伤。总之，上调的LRRC55促进BK通道激活，加重FSGS、DN和MN足细胞的细胞损伤。LRRC55抑制可能代表了足细胞损伤的一种新的治疗方法。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.