Status of human brucellosis in district Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
- 作者列表："Niaz S","Raqeeb A","Khan A","Nasreen","Amir S","Zhu L","Kumar S
BACKGROUND:Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacteria, Brucella genus. Human is always an accidental host, infected from domesticated or wild animals. METHODS:This study was conducted from September 2017 to April 2018. A total of 304 samples were collected in eight months duration from female of high-risk population connected with domesticated animals to investigate the sero-prevalence of Brucellosis using ELISA (Igm) in District Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. RESULTS:The high age wise prevalence was recorded as 32.25% in female with age group 21-30 by ELISA (P<0.05). The prevalent rate was significantly high (P<0.05) in Tehsil Batkhela (32.8%) than Dargai (22.75%). It was also recorded in the present study that the prevalence was higher from January to April. It was found 20.58%, 17.64%, 14.70%, 20.58%, 17.6%, 38.23%, 45.71% and 44.11% from September to April respectively. CONCLUSION:The present study concluded that the prevalence of brucellosis is significantly high among the age group 20-40 and from January to April 2018. Further studies will be required to show the prevalence of the Brucellosis all over the country.
背景: 布鲁氏菌病是由布鲁氏菌属细菌引起的一种人畜共患病。人类总是一个偶然的宿主，从家养或野生动物感染。 方法: 本研究于2017年9月至2018年4月进行。在巴基斯坦Khyber Pakhtunkhwa的马拉坎地区，在8个月的时间内，从与家养动物相关的高危雌性人群中收集了总共304个样本，使用ELISA (Igm) 调查布鲁氏菌病的血清患病率。 结果: ELISA结果显示，21 ~ 30岁女性的高年龄患病率为32.25% (P<0.05)。Tehsil Batkhela的患病率 (0.05) 显著高于Dargai (32.8%) (P <22.75%)。在本研究中也记录了从1月到4月的患病率较高。在9-4月分别发现20.58% 、17.64% 、14.70% 、20.58% 、17.6% 、38.23% 、45.71% 、44.11% 结论: 本研究得出的结论是，布鲁氏菌病在20-40岁年龄组和2018年1-4月的患病率明显较高。需要进一步研究以显示全国各地布鲁氏菌病的流行情况。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.