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Are Denture Adhesives Safe for Oral Cells?

义齿粘合剂对口腔细胞是否安全?

  • 影响因子:1.81
  • DOI:10.1111/jopr.13226
  • 作者列表:"López-García S","Pecci-Lloret MP","García-Bernal D","Guerrero-Gironés J","Pecci-Lloret MR","Rodríguez-Lozano FJ
  • 发表时间:2021-01-01
Abstract

PURPOSE:To compare the cytotoxicity of six commercially available denture adhesives on human gingival cells: Poligrip Flavour Free Fixative Cream, Fixodent Pro Duo Protection, Novafix cream, FittyDent, Polident Total Action, and Fixodent Pro Plus Duo Protection. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Eluates of denture adhesives were brought into contact with human gingival cells and compared to untreated cells (w/o any dental adhesive elute). Cell toxicity was assessed by measuring cell viability (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assays), cell morphology (immunofluorescence assays), induction of apoptosis/necrosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (flow cytometry assays). In addition, the pH of each sample was determined. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's multiple comparisons test. RESULTS:All denture adhesives tested led to a reduction in pH, especially Fixodent Pro Duo Protection and Fixodent Pro Plus Duo Protection. The cell viability assays showed that Fixodent Pro Duo Protection (1:1 72 hours, p = 3.04 × 10-6 ; 1:2 72 hours, p = 2.07 × 10-6 ; 1:4 72 hours, p = 2.04 × 10-6 ) and Fixodent Pro Plus Duo Protection (1:1 72 hours, p = 2.01 × 10-6 ; 1:2 72 hours, p = 3.03 × 10-6 ; 1:4 72 hours, p = 2.02 × 10-6 ) significantly decreased cell viability at all dilutions. Compared to the control group and the rest of the adhesives, Poligrip Flavour Free Fixative Cream (PFF 1:1 72 hours, p = 2.24 × 10-6 ; 1:2 72 hours, p = 2.44 × 10-6 ; 1:4 72 hours, p = 2.04 × 10-6 ) showed a significantly higher cell viability score at all dilutions. Fixodent Pro Duo Protection and Fixodent Pro Plus Duo Protection, both adhesives containing zinc salts in their composition, were responsible for necrosis, and the number of cells was much reduced, with aberrant morphology and pyknotic nucleus. Finally, Fixodent (1:2, p = 2.04 × 10-6 , 1:4, p = 0.00036; 1:2, p = 8.82 × 10-6 , 1:4, p = 2.30 × 10-6 ) products significantly promoted ROS production in gingival cells. CONCLUSIONS:The results suggest that denture adhesives containing zinc in their composition could be responsible of the decrease of cell viability, ROS production, aberrant cell morphology, and induction of apoptosis and cell death. However, other possible additional cytotoxic factors must be considered. Thus, more studies are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

摘要

目的: 比较6种市售义齿粘合剂对人牙龈细胞的细胞毒性: Poligrip flamor Free固定剂乳膏、Fixodent Pro Duo保护剂、Novafix乳膏、FittyDent、Polident Total Action和Fixodent Pro Plus Duo保护剂。 材料和方法: 使义齿粘合剂的洗脱液与人牙龈细胞接触,并与未处理的细胞 (没有任何牙科粘合剂洗脱) 进行比较。通过测量细胞活力 (3-(4,5-二甲基噻唑-2-基)-2,5-二苯基四唑溴化物 (MTT) 测定) 、细胞形态 (免疫荧光测定) 、细胞凋亡/坏死的诱导和活性氧 (ROS) 的产生 (流式细胞术测定) 来评估细胞毒性。此外,测定每个样品的pH。使用单因素方差分析 (ANOVA) 分析数据,随后使用Dunnett多重比较检验。 结果: 所有测试的义齿粘合剂导致pH降低,特别是Fixodent Pro Duo保护和Fixodent Pro Plus Duo保护。细胞活力测定显示Fixodent Pro Duo保护 (1:1 72小时,p = 3.04 × 10-6; 1:2 72小时,p = 2.07 × 10-6 ; 1:4 72小时,p = 2.04 × 10-6) 和Fixodent Pro Plus Duo保护 (1:1 72小时,p = 2.01 × 10-6;1:2 72小时,p = 3.03 × 10-6 ; 1:4 72小时,p = 2.02 × 10-6) 在所有稀释度下均显著降低细胞活力。与对照组和其余粘合剂相比,Poligrip无味固定剂霜 (PFF 1:1 72小时,p = 2.24 × 10-6; 1:2 72小时,p = 2.44 × 10-6 ; 1:4 72小时,p = 2.04 × 10-6) 显示在所有稀释度下显著更高的细胞活力评分。Fixodent Pro Duo保护和Fixodent Pro Plus Duo保护,这两种粘合剂在其组成中含有锌盐,是导致坏死的原因,并且细胞数量大大减少,具有异常形态和pyknotic核。最后,Fixodent (1:2,p = 2.04 × 10-6,1:4,p = 0.00036; 1:2,p = 8.82 × 10-6,1:4,p = 2.30 × 10-6) 产物显著促进牙龈细胞中ROS的产生。 结论: 含锌义齿粘接剂的组成可能与细胞活力降低、ROS产生、细胞形态异常以及诱导细胞凋亡和细胞死亡有关。然而,必须考虑其他可能的额外细胞毒性因子。因此,需要更多的研究来证实这一假设。

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