- 作者列表："Höhne C","Rammler T","Schmitter M
PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was the design, feasibility, and evaluation of a 3D printed tooth model with internal preparation for dental education in veneer preparation. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A tooth with two different colored layers for the crown and the preparation form was designed and printed by a stereolithographic printer. In a voluntary course, 40 third- to fifth-year dental students were trained with these printed teeth in the clinical course. They had the opportunity to prepare four 3D printed teeth with an integrated veneer preparation. During their studies, they used standardized model teeth. The students rated the advantage in a questionnaire according to German school grades (1 best to 6 worst). For reliability analysis, Cronbach's alpha was calculated. Significant differences between groups were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS:The production of the teeth was feasible and cost-effective. The overall mean rating of the printed teeth in the questionnaire was 1.8 ± 0.18. The students rated the learning results with the printed tooth as significantly better than the standard model tooth (mean 3.0 ± 0.86 vs. mean 2.1 ± 0.95; p < 0.001). The item "is a more suitable exercise option" in contrast to standard model teeth was evaluated with 1.9 ± 0.61. The item "the included preparation was clearly visible in color" was rated with 1.7 ± 0.71. "The tooth model illustrated visually an ideal preparation" was rated with 1.8 ± 0.65. Additionally, the students were interested in including more printed teeth into their studies (1.7 ± 0.86). In the open questions the students reported great benefits of this method. CONCLUSIONS:The feasibility of this teaching concept was confirmed. The students favored working on the innovative 3D-teeth with internal veneer preparation, emphasizing the usefulness of this technique in dental education. The tooth enabled the students to control their preparation permanently on their own.
目的: 本研究的目的是设计，可行性和评价3D打印的牙齿模型与内部准备的牙齿教育在单板准备。 材料和方法: 设计一颗具有两种不同颜色的牙冠层和制备形式的牙齿，并通过立体平版印刷机进行印刷。在志愿课程中，40名第三至第五年的牙科学生在临床课程中接受了这些印刷牙齿的培训。他们有机会准备了四颗3D打印的牙齿，并进行了综合贴面准备。在学习期间，他们使用标准化的模型牙齿。学生根据德国学校成绩 (1至6最差) 在问卷中对优势进行评分。对于可靠性分析，计算Cronbach α。使用Mann-Whitney U-检验计算组间的显著差异。 结果: 该牙的制作具有可行性和成本效益。问卷中打印牙齿的总体平均评级为1.8 ± 0.18。学生将打印牙齿的学习结果评定为显著优于标准模型牙齿 (平均3.0 ± 0.86对平均2.1 ± 0.95; p <0.001)。与标准模型牙齿相比，用1.9 ± 0.61评估项目 “是更合适的锻炼选项”。“所包括的制剂的颜色清晰可见” 项的评分为1.7 ± 0.71。“牙齿模型在视觉上示出了理想的制剂” 被评定为1.8 ± 0.65。此外，学生有兴趣将更多的打印牙齿纳入他们的学习 (1.7 ± 0.86)。在开放性问题中，学生们报告了这种方法的巨大好处。 结论: 证实了该教学理念的可行性。学生们喜欢用内部贴面准备创新的3d牙齿，强调这种技术在牙科教育中的有用性。牙齿使学生能够自己永久控制他们的准备工作。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.