STARTRAC analyses of scRNAseq data from tumor models reveal T cell dynamics and therapeutic targets.
- 作者列表："Bhatt D","Kang B","Sawant D","Zheng L","Perez K","Huang Z","Sekirov L","Wolak D","Huang JY","Liu X","DeVoss J","Manzanillo PS","Pierce N","Zhang Z","Symons A","Ouyang W
:Single-cell RNA sequencing is a powerful tool to examine cellular heterogeneity, novel markers and target genes, and therapeutic mechanisms in human cancers and animal models. Here, we analyzed single-cell RNA sequencing data of T cells obtained from multiple mouse tumor models by PCA-based subclustering coupled with TCR tracking using the STARTRAC algorithm. This approach revealed various differentiated T cell subsets and activation states, and a correspondence of T cell subsets between human and mouse tumors. STARTRAC analyses demonstrated peripheral T cell subsets that were developmentally connected with tumor-infiltrating CD8+ cells, CD4+ Th1 cells, and T reg cells. In addition, large amounts of paired TCRα/β sequences enabled us to identify a specific enrichment of paired public TCR clones in tumor. Finally, we identified CCR8 as a tumor-associated T reg cell marker that could preferentially deplete tumor-associated T reg cells. We showed that CCR8-depleting antibody treatment provided therapeutic benefit in CT26 tumors and synergized with anti-PD-1 treatment in MC38 and B16F10 tumor models.
: 单细胞RNA测序是在人类癌症和动物模型中检查细胞异质性、新型标志物和靶基因以及治疗机制的有力工具。在这里，我们通过基于PCA的子聚类与使用STARTRAC算法的TCR跟踪相结合，分析了从多个小鼠肿瘤模型获得的T细胞的单细胞RNA测序数据。该方法揭示了各种分化的T细胞亚群和活化状态，以及人与小鼠肿瘤之间的T细胞亚群的对应关系。STARTRAC分析显示外周T细胞亚群与肿瘤浸润的CD8 + 细胞、CD4 + Th1细胞和T reg细胞发育相关。此外，大量配对的TCR α/β 序列使我们能够鉴定肿瘤中配对的公共TCR克隆的特异性富集。最后，我们发现CCR8是一种肿瘤相关T reg细胞标志物，可以优先消耗肿瘤相关T reg细胞。我们发现CCR8-depleting抗体治疗在CT26肿瘤中提供治疗益处，并在MC38和B16F10肿瘤模型中与anti-PD-1治疗协同作用。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.