Induced abortion has no psychological effect on early parental self-efficacy and psychological well-being: The Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children study.
- 作者列表："Holmlund S","Junttila N","Aromaa M","Räihä H","Mäkinen J","Rautava P
INTRODUCTION:An association between a history of induced abortion and psychological well-being post-abortion has been demonstrated in recently published studies, which is contrary to the findings of existing known high-quality studies. MATERIAL AND METHODS:An evaluation was conducted to determine whether a history of abortion affected the psychological well-being and parental self-efficacy of first-time mothers and their partners; this assessment was performed when the child was aged 18 months. Questionnaires were administered to 492 first-time mothers, 37 of whom had a history of abortion, and their partners (n = 436). Women with previous miscarriages, ectopic pregnancies, and deliveries were excluded. The women were allocated to an abortion group or a comparison group, depending on each woman's abortion history obtained from medical birth registry data. Psychological well-being, which encompassed social and emotional loneliness, marital satisfaction, social phobia, and depression, was evaluated as a predictor of maternal and paternal self-efficacy within the two groups. The analysis was conducted using multi-group structural equation modeling. RESULTS:Induced abortion was not predictive of maternal or paternal well-being or parental self-efficacy. Overall, maternal and paternal psychological well-being was predictive of parental self-efficacy when an assessment was performed, regardless of an abortion history. After testing the invariance of multi-group models, psychological well-being was similarly found to predict parental self-efficacy in both the abortion history and comparison groups. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that the psychological well-being of parents is an important predictor of maternal and paternal self-efficacy during toddlerhood. Abortion history was not demonstrated to negatively impact the psychological well-being of parents with respect to their capacity for parental self-efficacy.
引言: 人工流产史与流产后心理健康之间的联系在最近发表的研究中得到证实，这与现有已知高质量研究的结果相反。 材料和方法: 进行评估，以确定流产史是否影响初产妇及其伴侣的心理健康和父母自我效能; 该评估在孩子18个月时进行。对492名初产妇及其伴侣 (n = 436) 进行了问卷调查，其中37人有流产史。排除既往流产、异位妊娠和分娩的妇女。这些妇女被分配到一个流产组或一个比较组，这取决于每个妇女的流产史从医学出生登记数据中获得。心理健康，包括社交和情感孤独，婚姻满意度，社交恐惧症和抑郁，被评估为两组中母亲和父亲自我效能的预测因子。使用多组结构方程模型进行分析。 结果: 人工流产不能预测母亲或父亲的幸福感或父母的自我效能。总体而言，无论是否有流产史，在进行评估时，母亲和父亲的心理健康是父母自我效能的预测因素。在测试多组模型的不变性后，同样发现心理幸福感在流产史和对照组中都预测父母的自我效能。 结论: 这些研究结果表明，父母的心理幸福感是幼儿时期母亲和父亲自我效能的重要预测因子。没有证明堕胎史对父母自我效能能力的心理健康产生负面影响。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.