Length of hospital stay after cesarean section in Denmark from 2004 to 2016: A national register-based study.
- 作者列表："Kruse AR","Arendt LH","Jakobsen DH","Kehlet H","Lauszus FF","Forman A","Uldbjerg N","Sundtoft IB","Kesmodel US
INTRODUCTION:Length of hospital stay after birth has decreased during the last decades, but nationwide data on length of hospital stay after cesarean section are lacking. Elements of Enhanced Recovery Programs were reported to reduce the length of hospital stay. The aim of this nationwide study was to describe the length of hospital stay after cesarean section in Denmark from 2004 to 2016 taking into account birth- and health-related factors as well as demographic changes and, further, to assess potential differences between the five Danish regions. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Length of hospital stay was assessed in 164 209 deliveries by cesarean section in Denmark from 2004 to 2016. Data were obtained from the Danish National Patient Register. All deliveries by cesarean section at gestational age <22 weeks were excluded. Median length of hospital stay was reported based on crude and adjusted analyses. RESULTS:The median length of hospital stay was significantly reduced by 39 hours (95% confidence interval [CI] 37.9-40.1), from 97 hours (4.0 days) in 2004 to 58 hours (2.4 days) in 2016. Reductions were observed among both planned and emergency cesarean sections. When birth- and health-related factors as well as demographic changes were accounted for, median length of hospital stay was reduced by 30 hours (95% CI 29.3-30.8) in the period. The decrease in length of hospital stay from 2004 to 2016 varied between the five Danish regions, with adjusted reductions between 19 and 46 hours. CONCLUSIONS:A nationwide decrease in length of hospital stay after cesarean section was observed from 2004 to 2016 across all five regions but with significant regional variations. Further studies on the optimal length of hospital stay are needed, especially with regard to implementation of enhanced recovery programs.
引言: 在过去的几十年里，出生后的住院时间有所减少，但全国范围内缺乏剖宫产术后住院时间的数据。据报道，加强康复计划的要素减少了住院时间。这项全国性研究的目的是描述丹麦2004年至2016年剖宫产后的住院时间，考虑出生和健康相关因素以及人口变化，并进一步评估丹麦五个地区之间的潜在差异。 材料和方法: 2004年至2016年，对丹麦164 209例剖宫产分娩的住院时间进行了评估。数据来自丹麦国家患者登记。排除所有胎龄 <22周剖宫产分娩。根据粗分析和校正分析报告中位住院时间。 结果: 中位住院时间显著减少39小时 (95% 置信区间 [CI] 37.9-40.1)，从2004年的97小时 (4.0天) 到2016年的58小时 (2.4天)。在计划和紧急剖宫产中观察到减少。当考虑到出生和健康相关因素以及人口统计学变化时，中位住院时间在此期间减少了30小时 (95% CI 29.3-30.8)。2004年至2016年住院时间的减少因丹麦五个地区而异，调整后的减少时间为19至46小时。 结论: 从2004年到2016年，所有五个地区的剖宫产术后住院时间在全国范围内都有所减少，但地区差异显著。需要进一步研究最佳住院时间，特别是在实施强化康复计划方面。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.