Borderline ovarian tumors in Denmark 1997-2018: Time trends in incidence by histology, age and educational level.
- 作者列表："Baandrup L","Faber MT","Aalborg GL","Kjaer SK
INTRODUCTION:After some decades with an increasing incidence of borderline ovarian tumors, more recent studies have observed that the incidence rate seems to be leveling off or declining. In this study, we describe the incidence of borderline ovarian tumors in Denmark 1997-2018 by histology, age at diagnosis and educational level. MATERIAL AND METHODS:All borderline ovarian tumors registered in the Danish Pathology Registry during 1997-2018 were identified and individual-level educational information was retrieved from nationwide registers. Age-standardized incidence rates were estimated according to histology, age at diagnosis and educational level. To investigate incidence trends over time, the average annual percentage change and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Poisson regression. RESULTS:We identified 3927 women with borderline ovarian tumors during the study period, of which 1997 (50.9%) were serous and 1743 (44.4%) were mucinous. The age-standardized incidence rate of serous borderline ovarian tumors did not change significantly over calendar time (average annual percentage change = -0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.13 to 0.88). For mucinous tumors, the age-standardized incidence rate was also relatively stable during the first half of the study period, followed by a decrease from 2.56 to 1.25 per 100 000 person-years between 2007-2011 and 2017-2018. Over the entire study period, the incidence rate of mucinous borderline tumors declined on average by 2.91% (95% CI -4.24 to -1.51) per year. The incidence of both types of borderline ovarian tumors seemed to be highest among women with a low educational level. Over calendar time, the incidence of mucinous tumors decreased in all educational groups, whereas the incidence of serous tumors decreased exclusively in women with a high educational level. Time trends did not differ markedly by age at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS:In Denmark, the incidence of serous borderline ovarian tumors was stable during 1997-2018, whereas the incidence of mucinous borderline ovarian tumors decreased. The incidence rates of both types of borderline ovarian tumors tended to be highest among women with a low educational level throughout the study period.
引言: 随着交界性卵巢肿瘤发病率的增加，几十年后，最近的研究发现发病率似乎正在趋于平稳或下降。在这项研究中，我们通过组织学、诊断年龄和教育水平描述了丹麦1997-2018交界性卵巢肿瘤的发病率。 材料和方法: 确定1997-2018期间在丹麦病理学登记处登记的所有交界性卵巢肿瘤，并从全国范围内的登记处检索个体水平的教育信息。根据组织学、诊断年龄和教育水平估计年龄标准化发病率。为了研究发病率随时间的变化趋势，使用泊松回归估计平均年百分比变化和相应的95% 置信区间 (ci)。 结果: 我们在研究期间确定了3927例卵巢交界性肿瘤患者，其中1997例 (50.9%) 为浆液性，1743例 (44.4%) 为黏液性。浆液性交界性卵巢肿瘤的年龄标准化发病率随日历时间没有显著变化 (平均年百分比变化 = -0.13，95% 置信区间 [CI] -1.13至0.88)。对于粘液性肿瘤，年龄标准化的发病率在研究的前半段期间也相对稳定，随后在2.56-1.25和100-2007之间每2011 000人年从2017下降到2018。在整个研究期间，黏液性交界性肿瘤的发病率平均每年下降2.91% (95% CI -4.24至-1.51)。两种类型的交界性卵巢肿瘤的发病率似乎在低教育水平的女性中最高。随着日历时间的推移，粘液性肿瘤的发病率在所有教育群体中降低，而浆液性肿瘤的发病率仅在具有高教育水平的女性中降低。时间趋势在诊断时的年龄没有显著差异。 结论: 在丹麦，浆液性交界性卵巢肿瘤的发病率在1997-2018期间是稳定的，而黏液性交界性卵巢肿瘤的发病率下降。在整个研究期间，两种类型的交界性卵巢肿瘤的发病率在教育水平低的女性中往往最高。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.