- 作者列表："Sreerama D","Surana M","Moolchandani K","Chaturvedula L","Keepanasseril A","Keepanasseril A","Pillai AA","Nair NS
INTRODUCTION:The objective of this study was to systematically review the maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant women who underwent percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (PBMV) during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A search was conducted on MEDLINE and Embase databases to identify studies published between 2000 and 2018 that reported on maternal and fetal outcomes following PBMV performed in pregnancy. Randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies and case series with four or more pregnancies in which PBMV was performed during pregnancy were included. Reference lists from relevant articles were also hand-searched for relevant citations. A successful procedure was defined as one where there was a reported improvement in the valve area or reduction in the mitral valve gradient. A random effects model was used to derive pooled estimates of various outcomes and the final estimates were reported as percentages with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). RESULTS:Twenty-one observational studies reporting 745 pregnancies were included in the review, all of them having reported outcomes without a comparison group. Most of the studies fell into the low-risk category as determined using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal checklist for case series. Most of the studies (86%) were reported from low- to middle-income countries and PBMV was mostly performed during the second trimester of pregnancy. Forty-three procedures (5.7%) were unsuccessful, nearly half (n = 19) of them reported among women with the severe subvalve disease (Wilkins subvalve score 3 or more). There were 11 maternal deaths among those with suboptimal valve anatomy (severe subvalve disease or Wilkin score >8). Mitral regurgitation was the most common cardiac complication (12.7%; 95% CI 7.3%-19.1%), followed by restenosis (2.4%; 95% CI 0.02%-7.2%). Pooled incidence of cesarean section was 12.1% (95% CI 3.6%-23.8%), preterm delivery 3.9% (95% CI 0.6%-9.0%), stillbirth 0.9% (95%CI 0.2%-2.2%) and low birthweight 5.4% (95% CI 0.2%-14.7%). CONCLUSIONS:PBMV may be an effective and safe procedure for optimizing outcomes in pregnant women with mitral stenosis in the absence of severe subvalve disease.
引言: 本研究的目的是系统评价妊娠期接受经皮球囊二尖瓣成形术 (PBMV) 的孕妇的母婴结局。 材料和方法: 在MEDLINE和Embase数据库中进行搜索，以确定2000年至2018年间发表的关于PBMV妊娠后母体和胎儿结局的研究。包括随机对照试验，队列研究，病例对照研究，横断面研究和在怀孕期间进行PBMV的四次或更多妊娠的病例系列。还手工搜索了相关文章的参考文献列表，以查找相关引文。成功的手术被定义为瓣膜面积有改善或二尖瓣梯度降低的手术。使用随机效应模型得出各种结局的汇总估计值，最终估计值以95% 置信区间 (95% CI) 的百分比形式报告。 结果: 21项观察性研究报告了745例妊娠被纳入审查，所有这些研究都报告了结局，没有对照组。使用Joanna Briggs研究所 (JBI) 病例系列关键评估清单确定，大多数研究属于低风险类别。大多数研究 (86%) 来自低收入至中等收入国家，PBMV主要在妊娠中期进行。43例手术 (5.7%) 不成功，其中近一半 (n = 19) 报告为患有严重瓣膜下疾病的女性 (Wilkins瓣膜下评分 ≥ 3分)。瓣膜解剖结构欠佳 (严重瓣下病变或Wilkin评分> 8分) 的产妇中有11例死亡。二尖瓣返流是最常见的心脏并发症 (12.7%; 95% CI 7.3%-19.1%)，其次是再狭窄 (2.4%; 95% CI 0.02%-7.2%)。剖宫产率为12.1% (95% CI 3.6%-23.8%)，早产发生率为3.9% (95% CI 0.6%-9.0%)，死胎发生率为0.9% (95% CI 0.2%-2.2%)，低出生体重发生率为5.4% (95% CI 0.2%-14.7%)。 结论: 对于无严重瓣下病变的二尖瓣狭窄孕妇，PBMV可能是一种有效且安全的优化结局方法。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.