- 作者列表："Bonnevier A","Maršál K","Brodszki J","Thuring A","Källén K
INTRODUCTION:Fetal growth restriction is associated with adverse perinatal outcome and the clinical management of these pregnancies is a challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) to predict adverse perinatal outcome in high-risk pregnancies in the third trimester. Another aim was to study whether the CPR has better predictive value than its components, middle cerebral artery (MCA) pulsatility index (PI) and umbilical artery (UA) PI. MATERIAL AND METHODS:The study was a retrospective cohort study including 1573 singleton high-risk pregnancies with Doppler examinations performed at 32+0 to 40+6 gestational weeks at Lund University Hospital and the University Hospital of Malmö between 29 December 1994 and 31 December 2017. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to investigate the predictive value of the gestational age-specific z-scores for CPR, UA PI and MCA PI, respectively, for the primary outcome "perinatal asphyxia/mortality" and the secondary outcomes "birthweight small for gestational age (SGA)" and two composite outcomes: "appropriate for gestational age/large for gestational age liveborn infants with neonatal morbidity" and "SGA liveborn infants with neonatal morbidity." RESULTS:The performance in predicting perinatal asphyxia/mortality was poor for all three variables and did not differ significantly. The ROC area under curve (AUC) was 0.56, 0.55 and 0.53 for CPR, UA PI and MCA PI z-scores, respectively. The ROC AUC for CPR z-scores to predict SGA was 0.73, significantly higher than that for either UA PI or MCA PI (P < .001). The ability of CPR and the MCA PI to predict appropriate for gestational age/large for gestational age infant morbidity and SGA infant morbidity was similar and significantly better than UA PI (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:In the present study, none of the three Doppler measures proved to be useful in predicting perinatal asphyxia and mortality. CPR and MCA PI were equally good in predicting neonatal morbidity, especially in SGA pregnancies, and both were significantly better predictors than the UA PI. CPR had a high predictive value for SGA at birth, better than that of its two components, UA PI and MCA PI.
引言: 胎儿生长受限与不良的围产期结局相关，这些妊娠的临床管理是一个挑战。本研究的目的是探讨脑胎盘比率 (CPR) 预测妊娠晚期高危妊娠围生儿不良结局的可能性。另一个目的是研究CPR是否比其成分，大脑中动脉 (MCA) 搏动指数 (PI) 和脐动脉 (UA) PI具有更好的预测价值。 材料和方法: 本研究是一项回顾性队列研究，包括1994年12月29日至20 17年12月31日在隆德大学医院和马尔默大学医院于32 + 0至40 + 6孕周进行的1573例单胎高危妊娠的多普勒检查。受试者工作特征 (ROC) 曲线用于研究CPR、UA PI和MCA PI的胎龄特异性z评分分别对主要结局 “围产期窒息/死亡率” 和次要结局 “出生体重小于胎龄 (SGA)” 的预测价值 "和两个复合结果:"适用于胎龄/大于胎龄儿具有新生儿发病率的活产婴儿 ”和“ SGA具有新生儿发病率的活产婴儿 ”。 结果: 在预测围产期窒息/死亡率方面，所有三个变量的表现都很差，并且没有显著差异。CPR、UA PI和MCA PI z评分的ROC曲线下面积 (AUC) 分别为0.56、0.55和0.53。用于预测SGA的CPR z评分的ROC AUC为0.73，显著高于UA PI或MCA PI (P <.001)。CPR和MCA PI预测适当胎龄/大胎龄婴儿发病率和SGA婴儿发病率的能力相似，显著优于UA PI (P <.001)。 结论: 在本研究中，三种多普勒测量方法都不能用于预测围产儿窒息和死亡率。CPR和MCA PI在预测新生儿发病率方面同样良好，特别是在SGA妊娠中，两者均显著优于UA PI。CPR对出生时的SGA有较高的预测价值，优于其两个组分UA PI和MCA PI。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.