Exploring women's attitudes, knowledge, and intentions to use oocyte freezing for non-medical reasons: A systematic review.
- 作者列表："Platts S","Trigg B","Bracewell-Milnes T","Jones BP","Saso S","Parikh J","Nicopoullos J","Almeida P","Norman-Taylor J","Nikolaou D","Johnson M","Thum MY
INTRODUCTION:Women are postponing childbearing and preventing age-related fertility decline with oocyte freezing for non-medical reasons (OFNMR). The objective of this systematic evaluation was to gain an understanding of women's attitudes and knowledge of, and intentions to use OFNMR among users of OFNMR and the general public. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PyschINFO databases was undertaken, for studies that examined the psychosocial attitudes among women toward OFNMR. The search was limited to English language and no time restriction was set for publications. Extracted data were analyzed using thematic analysis and the study was performed according to PRISMA guidelines with prospective PROSPERO registration (CRD4201912578). RESULTS:Overall, 35 studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were broadly categorized into studies investigating users or potential users of OFNMR, and studies examining the views of members of the general public. Users of OFNMR have good knowledge of age-related fertility decline and awareness of the OFNMR procedure. Lack of partner was identified as the most common motivating factor to undertake OFNMR, with cost as a predominant concern. Knowledge among the general public of OFNMR is highly variable. Underestimation of age-related fertility decline is common among the general public. Intentions of women to use OFNMR also varied drastically between studies. CONCLUSIONS:Women are predominantly motivated to freeze eggs by the lack of a suitable partner, but cost is a significant barrier. Increasing the number of women pursuing OFNMR at an earlier stage may positively impact upon the risk of future involuntary childlessness. Better information should be made available to both women and men about their fertility and options to inform their reproductive decision-making.
引言: 由于非医学原因冷冻卵母细胞 (OFNMR)，女性正在推迟生育并防止与年龄相关的生育力下降。这项系统评估的目的是了解女性对核磁共振的态度和知识，以及在核磁共振用户和公众中使用核磁共振的意图。 材料和方法: 对MEDLINE、EMBASE和PyschINFO数据库进行系统检索，以研究女性对OFNMR的社会心理态度。搜索仅限于英语，对出版物没有时间限制。使用主题分析分析提取的数据，并根据PRISMA指南和前瞻性PROSPERO注册 (CRD4201912578) 进行研究。 结果: 共有35项研究符合纳入标准。研究大致分为调查nmr用户或潜在用户的研究，以及调查公众意见的研究。OFNMR的用户对年龄相关的生育力下降和OFNMR程序的认识有很好的了解。缺乏伙伴被认为是最常见的激励因素进行核磁共振，成本是主要的问题。普通公众对OFNMR的了解是高度可变的。对与年龄相关的生育率下降的低估在一般公众中很常见。女性使用核磁共振的意图在不同研究之间也有很大差异。 结论: 由于缺乏合适的伴侣，女性主要是出于冷冻卵子的动机，但成本是一个重要的障碍。在早期阶段增加追求核磁共振的女性数量可能会对未来非自愿无子女的风险产生积极影响。应向妇女和男子提供关于其生育能力的更好信息，以及为其生殖决策提供信息的选择。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.