How to ensure policies and interventions rely on strong supporting facts to improve women's health: The case of female genital cutting, using Rosling's Factfulness approach.
- 作者列表："Essén B","Mosselmans L
:Rosling et al's book Factfulness aims to inspire people to use strong supporting facts in their decision-making, with 10 rules of thumb to fight dramatic instincts. In this paper, the Factfulness framework is applied to female genital cutting (FGC), in order to identify possible biases and promote evidence-based thinking in studies on FGC, clinical guidelines on management of FGC, and interventions aimed at abolishing FGC. The Factfulness framework helps to acknowledge that FGC is not a uniform practice and helps address that variability. This framework also highlights the importance of multidisciplinarity to understand causalities of the FGC issue, which the authors argue is essential. This paper highlights the fact that FGC is a dynamic practice, with changes in the practice that are ongoing, and that those changes are different in different contexts. The "zero tolerance" discourses on FGC fail to acknowledge this. Factfulness encourages us to be more critical of methodologies used in the area of FGC, for example when estimating girls at risk of FGC in migration contexts. Factfulness provides the tools to calculate risks rather than judgments based on fear. This may help limit stigmatization of women with FGC and to allocate resources to health problems of migrant women based on real risks. The framework also calls for more research and production of less biased facts in the field of FGC, in order to improve interventions aimed at abolishing FGC, and clinical guidelines for the treatment of FGC. Factfulness is a useful and structured foundation for reflection over constructs, biases and disputes surrounding FGC, and can help improve the quality of future evidence-based interventions and education that address the actual needs of women with FGC and girls at risk of FGC.
: Rosling等人的书《事实》旨在激励人们在决策中使用强有力的支持事实，用10条经验法则来对抗戏剧性的本能。在本文中，事实框架应用于女性生殖器切割 (FGC)，以确定可能的偏见，并促进FGC研究中的循证思维，FGC管理的临床指南，以及旨在废除FGC的干预措施。事实框架有助于承认FGC不是一个统一的做法，并有助于解决这种可变性。该框架还强调了多学科理解FGC问题因果关系的重要性，作者认为这是至关重要的。本文强调了这样一个事实，即FGC是一个动态的实践，实践中的变化正在进行，并且这些变化在不同的背景下是不同的。关于FGC的 “零容忍” 论述没有承认这一点。事实鼓励我们对FGC领域使用的方法更加挑剔，例如在估计移民背景下面临FGC风险的女孩时。事实提供了计算风险的工具，而不是基于恐惧的判断。这可能有助于限制对FGC妇女的污名化，并根据实际风险为移民妇女的健康问题分配资源。该框架还呼吁在FGC领域进行更多的研究和产生较少偏见的事实，以改善旨在废除FGC的干预措施，以及治疗FGC的临床指南。事实是反思围绕FGC的构建、偏见和争端的有用和结构化基础，有助于提高未来循证干预和教育的质量，以满足FGC妇女和面临FGC风险的女孩的实际需求。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.