Does resilience moderate the effect of intimate partner violence on signs of depression among Tanzanian pregnant women: A cross-sectional study.
- 作者列表："Magnusson FL","Rogathi JJ","Sigalla GN","Manongi R","Rasch V","Gammeltoft T","Meyrowitsch DW
INTRODUCTION:Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has been found to be associated with a multitude of poor health and quality of life outcomes. Among the risks exacerbated by IPV is prenatal depression. Resilience is hypothesized to protect against psychopathology after exposure to a traumatic influence. The present study aims to investigate resilience as a moderator of the effect of exposure to IPV on prenatal depression among pregnant women in Moshi, Tanzania. MATERIAL AND METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, nested within a larger longitudinal study, pregnant women receiving antenatal care were interviewed about exposure to IPV, signs of depression using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, and resilience using the abbreviated Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Logistic regression was used to test the effect of the interaction term of resilience and exposure to IPV during pregnancy on the risk of high level of signs of depression. RESULTS:In total, 1013 women completed all interviews, 300 women reported exposure to IPV, and 113 had high levels of signs of depression. Mean resilience score was 14.26 (SD 9.45). Exposure to IPV was correlated with signs of depression (adjusted odds ratio 6.49, 95% CI 3.75-11.24). Resilience was not correlated with signs of depression, nor was the interaction term of resilience and exposure to IPV. CONCLUSIONS:The study did not find that resilience acted as a moderator of the effect of exposure to IPV during pregnancy on the risk of prenatal depression. The cross-sectional design of the study may not be well suited to investigate resilience, which could take time to manifest. The abbreviated Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale has not been validated in a Tanzanian setting, or in the Swahili version. Practitioners should take note that all women and families affected by IPV should be afforded relevant assistance from social services, law enforcement, healthcare practitioners, and other relevant services, regardless of their apparent level of resilience.
引言: 暴露于亲密伴侣暴力 (IPV) 已被发现与许多不良健康和生活质量结果相关。IPV加剧的风险包括产前抑郁。复原力被假设为在暴露于创伤影响后防止精神病理学。本研究旨在调查坦桑尼亚Moshi孕妇暴露于IPV对产前抑郁影响的调节能力。 材料和方法: 在这项横断面研究中，嵌套在一个更大的纵向研究中，接受产前护理的孕妇接受了关于暴露于IPV、使用爱丁堡产后抑郁量表的抑郁迹象和使用缩写Connor-Davidson复原力量表的复原力的访谈。采用Logistic回归检验复原力交互项和孕期暴露于IPV对高水平抑郁体征风险的影响。 结果: 共有1013名女性完成了所有访谈，300名女性报告暴露于IPV，113有高水平的抑郁迹象。平均弹性评分为14.26 (SD 9.45)。暴露于IPV与抑郁症状相关 (校正比值比6.49，95% CI 3.75-11.24)。复原力与抑郁症状无关，复原力和暴露于IPV的交互项也不相关。 结论: 该研究没有发现复原力在妊娠期暴露于IPV对产前抑郁风险的影响中起调节作用。该研究的横断面设计可能不太适合研究弹性，这可能需要时间来表现。缩写的Connor-Davidson复原力量表尚未在坦桑尼亚环境或斯瓦希里语版本中得到验证。从业人员应注意，所有受IPV影响的妇女和家庭都应得到社会服务、执法、医疗保健从业人员和其他相关服务机构的相关援助，无论其明显的复原力水平如何。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.